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SHEA'S 
LIBRARY -OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. 

* 

XII. 



DICTIONARY 



OF THB 



CHINOOK JARGON, 



OK, 



BY GEORGE GIBBS. I 



NEW YORK: 

CRAMOISY PRESS. 
1863. 



"PM 

:Cr5 



BANCROFT 



UIBRARY 






PREFACE. 



SOME years ago the Smithsonian Institution printed a small vocab 
ulary of the Chinook Jargon, furnished by Dr. B. R. Mitchell, of the 
U. S. Navy, and prepared, as we afterwards learned, by Mr. Lionnet, a 
Catholic priest, for his own use while studying the language at Chi 
nook Point. It was submitted by the Institution, for revision and 
preparation for the press, to the late Professor W. W. Turner. Al 
though it received the critical examination of that distinguished 
philologist, and was of use in directing attention tP the language, it 
was deficient in the number of words in use, contained many which 
did not properly belong to the Jargon, -and did not give the sources 
from which the words were derived. 

Mr. Hale had previously given a vocabulary and account of this 
Jargon in his " Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedi 
tion," which was noticed by Mr. Gallatin in the Transactions of the 
American Ethnological Society, vol. ii. He, however, fell into some 
errors in his derivation of the words, chiefly from ignoring the Chiha- 
lis element of the Jargon, and the number of words given by him 
amounted only to about two hundred and fifty. 

A copy of Mr. Lionnet's vocabulary having been sent to me, with 
a request to make such corrections as it might require, I concluded 
not merely to collate the words contained in this and other printed 
and manuscript vocabularies, but to ascertain, so far as possible, the 
languages which had contributed to it, with the original Indian words. 
This had become the more important, as its extended nse by different 
tribes had led to ethnological errors in the classing together of essen 
tially distinct families. Dr. Scouler, whose vocabularies were among 
the earliest bases of comparison of the languages of the northwest 
coast, assumed a number of words, which he found indiscriminately 



VI PREFACE. 

employed by the Nootkans of Vancouver Island, the Chinooks of the 
Columbia, and the intermediate tribes, to belong alike to their several 
languages, and exhibit analogies between them accordingly.* On 
this idea, among other points of fancied resemblance, he founded his 
family of Nootka-Columbians, one which has been adopted by Drs. 
Pritchard and Latham, and has caused very great misconception. 
Not only are those languages entirely distinct, but the Nootkans 
differ greatly in physical and mental characteristics from the latter. 
The analogies between the Chinook and the other native contribu 
tors to the Jargon are given hereafter. 

The origin of this Jargon, a conventional language similar to the 
Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-English-Dutch of 
Surinam, the Pigeon English of China, and several other mixed 
tongues, dates back to the fur droguers of the last century. Tliose 
mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen years preceding 1800, explored 
the intricacies of the northwest coast of America, picked up at their 
general rendezvous, Nootka Sound, various native words useful in 
barter, and thence transplanted them, with additions from the Eng 
lish, to the shores of Oregon. Even before their day, the coasting 
trade and warlike expeditions of the northern tribes, themselves a sea 
faring race, had opened up a partial understanding of each other's 
speech; for when* in 1792, Vancouver's officers visited Gray's Harbor, 
they found that the natives, though speaking a different language, 
understood many words of the Nootka. 

On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke at the mouth of the Columbia, 
in 1806, the new language, from the sentences given by them, had 
evidently attained some form. It was with the arrival of Astor's 
party, however, that the Jargon received its principal impulse. 
Many more words of English were then brought in, and for the first 
time the French, or rather the Canadian and Missouri patois of the 
French, was introduced. The principal seat of the company being at 
Astoria, not only a large addition of Chinook words was made, but a 
considerable number was taken from the Chihalis, who immediately 
bordered that tribe on the north, each owning a portion of Shoal- 
water Bay. The words adopted from the several languages were, 
naturally enough, those most easily uttered by all, except, of course, 
that objects new to the natives found their names in French or Eng 
lish, and such modifications were made in pronunciation as suited 
tongues accustomed to different sounds. Thus the gutturals of the 

* Journal Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. xi., 1841. 



PKEB-ACE. Vll 

Indians were softened or dropped; and the /and r of the English and 
French, to them unpronounceable, were modified into p and I. Gram 
matical forms were reduced to their simplest expression, and variations 
in mood and tense conveyed only by adverbs or by the context. 
The language continued to receive additions, and assumed a more dis 
tinct and settled meaning, under the Northwest and Hudson's Bay 
companies, who succeeded Astor's party, as well as through the 
American settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was soon perceived T>y 
the Indians, and the Jargon became to some extent a means of com 
munication between natives of different speech, as well as between 
them and the whites. It was even used as such between Americans 
and Canadians. It was at first most in vogue upon the lower Colum 
bia and the Willamette, whence it spread to Puget Sound, and with 
the extension of trade, found its way far up the coast, as well as the 
Columbia and Fraser rivers; and there are now few tribes between 
the 42d and 57th parallels of latitude in which there are not to be 
found interpreters through its medium. Its prevalence and easy ac 
quisition, while of vast convenience to traders and settlers, has tended 
greatly to hinder the acquirement of the original Indian languages ; 
so much so, that except by a few missionaries and pioneers, hardly 
one of them is spoken or understood by white men in all Oregon 
and Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its apparent poverty 
in number of words, and the absence of grammatical forms, it pos 
sesses much more flexibility and power of expression than might 
be imagined, and really serves almost every purpose of ordinary in 
tercourse. 

The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been vari 
ously stated. Many formerly employed have become in great meas 
ure obsolete, while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at 
the Dalles of the Columbia, various terms are common which would 
not be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the fol 
lowing selection, I have included all those which, on reference to a 
number of vocabularies, I have found current at any of these places, 
rejecting, on the other hand, such as individuals, partially acquainted 
with the native languages, have employed for their own convenience. 
The total number falls a little short of five hundred words. 

An analysis of their derivations gives the following result : 

Chinook, including Clatsop 200 

. Chinook, having analogies with other languages. . 21 
Interjections common to several 8 



Vlll PREFACE. 

Nootka, including dialects 24 

Chihalis, 32 ; Nisqually, 7 39 

Klikatat and Yakama 2 

Cree 2 

Chippeway (Ojibwa) 1 

Wasco (probably) 4 

Kalapuya (probably) 4 

By direct onomatopoeia 6 

Derivation unknown, or undetermined 18 

French, 90 ; Canadian, 4 94 

English 67 

. 

I had no opportunity of original investigation into the Nootka 
proper, but from the few words in different published vocabularies, 
and from some imperfect manuscript ones in my possession of the 
Tokwaht, Nittinat, and Makah dialects, have ascertained the number 
above given. Some of the unascertained words probably also belong 
to that language. Neither was I able to collate the Wasco or Kala 
puya, but have assigned them on the opinion of others. The former, 
also called Cathlasco, the dialect of the Dalles Indians, is a corrupted 
form of the Watlala or Upper Chinook. With the Chihalis, Yakama, 
and Klikatat, and the Nisqually, I had abundant means of comparison. 
The introduction of the Cree and Chippeway words is of course due 
to the Canadians. None have been derived from the Spanish, as 
their intercourse with the Nootka and Makah Indians was too short 
to leave an impression. Spanish words, especially those relating to 
horses or mules and their equipments, have of late come into general 
use in Oregon, owing to intercourse 'with California, but they form no 
part of the Jargon. It might have been expected from the number 
of Sandwich Islanders introduced by the Hudson's Bay company, and 
long resident in the country, that the Kanaka element would have 
found its way into the language, but their utterance is so foreign to 
the Indian ear, that not a word has been adopted. , 

In the nouns derived from the French, the definite article le, la, has 
almost in every instance been incorporated into the word, and the 
same has in one or two instances been prefixed to nouns not of French 
origin. Besides the words created by direct onomatopoeia, there are 
quite a number which are really Indian, but have their origin in the 
similarity of sound to sense. 

Dr. Seoul er's analogy between the Nootkan and " Columbian," 01 
Chinook, was founded on the following words : v 



1'IJKFACK. 



IX 



English, 


Tlaoquatch and Nutka. 


Columbian. 


plenty, 


*aya, 


*haya. 


no, 


*wik, 


*wake. 


water, 


tchaak, 


chuck. 


good, 


*hooleisli, 


*closh. 


bad, 


*peishakeis, 


*peshak. 


man, 


*tchuckoop, 


tillicham. 


woman, 


*tlootsemin, 


*clootchamen. 


child, 


"*tanassis, 


*tanass. 


now, 


tlahowieh, 


clabowiah. 


come, 


*tchooqna, 


*sacko. 


slave, 


mischemas, 


*mischema3. 


what are you ) 
doing, i 


*akoots-ka-*mamook, 


ekta-*mammok. 


what are you ) 


*au-kaak-* wawa, 


ekta-*wawa. > 


saying, [ 






let tne see, 


*nannanitch, 


*nannanitch. 


sun, 


*opeth, 


ootlach. 


sky, 


*sieya, 


*saya. 


fruit, 


*chamas, ' 


*camas. 


to sell, 


*makok, 


*makok. 


understand, 


*eommatax, 


*commatax. 



But of these, none marked with an asterisk belong to the Chinook 
or any of its dialects. The greater part of them are undoubtedly 
Nootkan, though there are errors in the spelling and, in some in 
stances, in the meaning. Of the rest, the Nootkan tchaak and the 
Chinook tVtsuk alone presents an analogy. Klahowiah does not mean 
" now," nor do I believe it is Nootkan, in any sense. It is, as ex 
plained in the dictionary, the Chinook -salutation, " How do you," 
" Good-bye," and is supposed to be derived from the word for jooor, 
miserable. Mischemas is not Chinook, and is probably not Nootkan. 
With the exception of Franchere, whose short vocabulary was pub 
lished by Mr. Gallatin, and Mr. Hale, all the writers mentioned by 
Luclwig who have given specimens of the Chinook language, have 
presented it in its Jargon form, more or less mixed with the -neigh 
boring ones, and with corruptions of French and English words. Mr. 
Swan, among others, has been led into this error. The place of his 
residence, Shoalwater Bay, is common ground of the Chinook and 
Chihalis Indians, and the degraded remnants of the two tribes arc 
closely intermarried, and use both languages almost indifferently. 



PREFACE. 



Setting aside interjections, common in a more or less modified 

form to several adjoining tribes, twenty-one words of those given in 

this vocabulary present noticeable analogies between the Chinook 
and other native languages. They are as follows : 



English. 


Chinook. ffailtzuk and Belbclla 


salmon berries, klalilli, olalli. 


English. Chinook and Ctatsop. 


Nootka. 






Jewit; and Cook. 


water, tl'tsuk : tl'chukw, 


chauk : cbahak. 


English. Chinook. 


Cowlitz. 


Ewantlen. Sdish. 


six, takhum, 


tukh'um, 


tuckhum', taekan. 


English. 


Chinook. 


Chihalis. NisquaUy. 


deep, 


kellippe, 


kluputl, klep. 


glad, 


kwan, 


kwal (tame). 


proud, 


eyutl, 


juil. 


demon, 


ichiatku, 


tsiatko, tsiatko. 


black bear, 


eitchhut, 


chetwut. 


crow, 


skaka, 


skaka. 


oyster, 


klokhklokh, 


chet!6kh, klokhklokh. 


game of " hands," 


itlokum, 


setlokum. 


English. 


Chinook. 


Yakama and Klikatat. 


certainly, 


nawitka, 


n'witka. 


always, 


kwanisum, 


kwalisim. 


younger sister, 


ats, 


atse. 


road, 


wehut, 


wiet (far). 


barrel, 


tamtilitsh, 


tamolifsh. 


buffalo, 


emdsmus, 


miismus. 


coyote, 


italipus, 


telipa (gray fox). 


mouse, 


kholkhol, 


khoilkhoil. 


bread, 


tsapelil, 


saplil. 


needle, 


okw6powa, 


kapus (a pin). 



The Clatsop (Klatsop) is merely a dialect of the Chinook (Tchi- 
niik) ; the Cowlitz (Kaualitsk), Kwantlen, Chihalis (Tsihelis), and 
Nisqually (N'skwali), are severally languages belonging to the 
Selish family. The Yakama and Klikatat are dialects of one of the 



PRKFACE. XI 

Sahaptin languages; and the Tokwaht (Tokwat), Nittinat, and Makah 
(Maka), quoted in the dictionary, are dialects of the Nootka (Niitka), 
of which the Hailtzuk or Belbella (variously spelled Haeeltzuk and 
Ilailtsa) is probably the northern type. It thus appears that, with 
two or three exceptions, the analogies of the Chinook, as contained 
in this vocabulary, are to be sought in the immediately adjoining 
tongues, or those of languages belonging to the same families with 
them; that these analogies, with perhaps one or two exceptions, can 
by no means be considered radical, and that their correspondence, or 
rather adoption, is easily accounted for by neighborhood and habits 
of intermarriage. A much more remarkable coincidence is the fact 
that two words included in this Jargon, one from the Nootkan, viz., 
Mawitck, a deer, venison ; and the other Chinook, J/oofy&, an elk, 
are also to be found in the Kowilth, the language of Humboldt 
Bay, in California. As this bay was first discovered in the winter 
of 1849-50, the words could not have been introduced by the fur 
trappers. 

With regard to the form into which this dictionary has been 
thrown, an explanation is necessary. The Jargon must in some 
degree be regarded as a written language, the orthography of which 
is English.' In Mr. Bale's vocabulary alone has one more scientific 
been attempted, and of several other printed, and numerous manu 
script dictionaries in circulation, M. Lionnet's alone, that I have met 
with, is according to the French. Although no fixed system of spell 
ing exists among them, I have therefore deemed it best to preserve 
for the Jargon words that Avhich most distinctly represents the com 
mon English pronunciation ; while for the Indian derivations, I have 
adopted that recommended by the Smithsonian Institution in collect 
ing Indian vocabularies, using the Italian sounds of the vowels, and 
representing the guttural of the German ich by Jch. This seemed the 
more proper, as the work would thereby be rendered of practical use, 
independent of what philological value it may possess. 

In collating the words of the present work and obtaining their 
derivations, I have been assisted by a number of friends ; among 
whom I should specially mention Mr. Alexander C. Anderson, of 
Victoria, V. L, and Mr. Solomon H. Smith, of Clatsop, Oregon. 



Bibliography of the Chinook Jargon, 



Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains. By Rev. Samuel 
Parker. 12mo. Ithaca, N.Y., 1838. 

" Vocabulary of the Chenook language, as spoken about Fort Van 
couver," pp. 336-338. 

Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expe 
dition. By Horatio Hale. 4to. Philadelphia : Lea & Blanchard, 
1846. 

A vocabulary of the " Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon," with 
an essay thereon, and phrases, is given in this work, pp. 6"36-650. 

Transactions of the American Ethnological Society. 2 vols., 8vo. 
New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1845, 1848. 

In vol. ii., pp. 62-70, under title of " Hale's Indians of Northwest 
America," is a partial reprint of the above. 

Rev. Z. B. Z. Bolduc, "Mission de la Colombie" 8vo. Quebec, 
1843. 

The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, "et quelques mots Tchinoucs'et Sneo- 
mus." The Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. The Chinook words 

are merely Jargon. 

I 

Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, &c. By Joel Palmer. 
12mo. Cincinnati, 1847, 1852. 

" Words used in the Chinook Jargon," pp. 147-152. 

Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River, 
&c. By Alexander Ross. 12 mo. London, 1849. 

Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 342-348, and words of the 
"mixed dialect," p. 349. His Chinook is, however, also impure. 

Ten Years in Oregon. By D. Lee and F. H. Frost. 1 2mo. New 
York, 1844. 

"A short vocabulary of the Clatsop dialect." This is likewise 
Jargon. 



XIV BIBMOGKAPHY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

History, d'c., of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Collected 
by Henry R. Schoolcraft. 4to. Parts 1-5. Philadelphia, 1851, 
1855. 

Lieut G. F. Eramons gives a brief " Klatsop Vocabulary " in Part 
III., pp. 223, 224, which is of the same character. 

Note 1 to article, " Philosophy of Utterance," Part V., pp. 548-551, 
a " Vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon." 

Vocabulary of the Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon. English, 
French, and Jargon. 8vo. Washington, 1853. pp. 22. 

Printed by the Smithsonian Institution, for private distribution. 
Without title-page. This is the one by M. Lionnet, before referred to. 

The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years' Residence in Washing ton 
Territory. By Jaines G. Swan. 12mo. New York : Harpers, 1857. 

" A vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chcnook or Jargon Languages, 
with the derivation of the words used in the latter," pp. 412-422. 

A Complete Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. English Chinook, 
and Chinook English. To which is added numerous conversations, 
&c. 3d edition. 24mo, pp. 24. Portland, Oregon : published by S. 
J. McCormick. 

Several editions of this work have been published ; the last which 
I have seen, in 1862. 

Guide-Book to the Gold Regions of Frazer River. With a map of 
the different routes, &c. 24mo, pp. 55. New York, 1858. 
A vocabulary of the Jargon, pp. 45-55. 

The Chinook Jargon and English and French Equivalent Forms. 
In "Steamer Bulletin," San Francisco, June 21, 1858. 

Contains an unarranged vocabulary of 354 words and phrases. 

The Canoe and the Saddle. By Theodore Winthrop. 12mo. 
Boston : Ticknor & Fields. 1863. 

" A partial vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon," pp. 299-302. 

History of the Oregon Territory, t&c. By John Dunn. 2d edition. 
London, 1846. 

" A few specimens of the language of the Millbank and Chinook 
tribes." Chinook tribe : 50 words and phrases, including digits. 
These words, as usual, are in great part " Jargon," and belong to the 
Nootkan, not to the Chinook. 

Besides the above, one, of which I have not the title before me, has 
been published by Mr. A. C. Anderson, and several in the newspapers 
of Oregon and Washington Territory. 



FART I. 

CHINOOK-ENGLISH 



NOTE. The references, "Hale," "Cook," "Jewitt," are respectively to 
Bale's " Ethnology of the United States Exploring Expedition," " Cook's Voy 
ages," and " Jewitt's Narrative.'* The others, as "Anderson," "Pandosy," 
" Shaw," " Tolmie," are from manuscriot notes of those gentlemen in posses 
sion of the writer. 



A DICTIONARY 



CHINOOK JARGON. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 



A. 

Ah-ha, adv. Common to various tribes. Yes. Expression of 
simple assent. On Puget Sound, E-EH. 

Ah'n-kut-te, or Ahn-kot-tie, adv. Chinook, ANKUTTT. For 
merly; before now. With the accent prolonged on the first syl 
lable, a long time ago. Ex. Ahnkutte lakit sun, four days ago 
Tenas ahnkutte, a little while since. 

Al-ah, interj. Expression of surprise. Ex. Alah inika chahko ! 
ah, yoiCve come! 

Al-kie, adv. Chinook, ALKEKH. Presently; in a little while; 
hold on ; not so fast. 

Al'-ta, adv. Chinook, ALTAKH. Now ; at the present time. 

A-mo'-te, n. Chinook, AMCTE ; Clatsop, KXABOTE. The strawberry. 

An-ah, interj. An exclamation denoting pain, displeasure, or de 
preciation. Ex. Anah nawitka mika halo shem, ah, indeed you 
are without shame. On Puget Sound, Ad-de-dah. 

Ats, n. Chinook, idem ; Yakama, ATSE (Pandosy). A sister 
younger than the speaker. In the original, only when used by her 
brother. 

A-yah-whul, v. Chihalis, AYAHWUL. To lend; borrow. 

Ay-keh-nam. See EH-KAH-NAM. 

B. 

Be-be, n., v. French. A word used towards children ; probably a 

repetition of the first syllable of BAISKR. A kiss; to kiss. 
Bed, n. English, idem. A bed. 
Bit, or Mit, n. English, BIT. A dime or shilling. 
Bloom, n. English, BROOM. A broom. Mamook bloom, to sweep. 



2 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Boat, n. English, idem. A boat, as distinguished from a canoe. 

Bos -ton, n., adj. An American; American. A name derived 
from the hailing-place of the first trading-ships to the Pacific. 
Boston illahie, the United States. 

Bur-dash, n. Can. French, BERDACHE (Anderson). An hermaph 
rodite. The reputation of hermaphroditism is not uncommon 
with Indians, and seems to attach to every malformation of the 
organs of generation. The word is of very limited use. 

C. 

Cal'-li-peen, n. French, CARABINE. A rifle. 

Ca-nim, n. Chinook, EKANIM. A canoe. Canim stick, the cedar, 

or wood from which canoes are usually made. 
Ca-po', n. French, CAPOT. A coat. 
Chah'-ko, v. Nootka, Clayoquot, CHAKO; Tokwaht, TCHOKWA. 

To come ; to become. Ex. Kansih mika chahko ? when did you 

come ? Chahko kloshe, to get well. 
Chak chak, n. Chinook, idem. The bald eagle (by onoma.), from 

its scream. Of only local use on the lower Columbia. 
Chee, adv., adj. Chinook, TSHI. Lately; just now; new. Chee 

nika ko, I have just arrived. Hyas chee, entirely new. 
Chet'-lo, or Jet'-lo, n. Chihalis, CHETLOKH. An oyster. Used 

on the lower Columbia. 
Chet-WOOt, n. Nisqually, idem. A black bear. Used only on 

Puget Sound. 
Chik -a-min, n., adj. Tokwaht, TSIKAMEN; Nootka, SICKAMIXXY 

(Jewitt); SEEKEMAILE (Cook). Iron; metal; metallic. T'kope 

chikamin, silver; pil chikamin, gold or copper. Chikamin lope, 

wire ; a chain. 

Chik chik. See TSIK-TSIK. 
Chil-chil. See TSIL-TSIL. 

Chitsh, n. Chihalis, TSHITSH. A grandmother. 
Chope, . Chihalis, TSHUP. A grandfather. 
Cho'-tub, . Nisqually, idem. A flea. Used on Puget Sound. 
Chuck, n. Nootka, CHAUK (Cook) ; CHAHAK, fresh water (Jewitt) ; 

Chinook, TLTSUK (Shortess) ; Clatsop, TL'CHUKW. Water ; a rinr 

or stream. Salt chuck, the sea; skookum chuck, a rapid; solleks 

chuck, a rough sea; chuck chahko or kalipi, the tide rises or fulls ; 

saghilli and keekwillie chuck, high and low tide. 
Chuk kin. n., v. Chihalis, TSUKAEN. To kick. Of local use only. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 3 

Close. See KLOSE. 

Oly, v. English. To cry. 

Cole, adj. English, COLD. Cole illahie, winter; icht cole, a year ; 
cole sick waum sick, the fever and ague. 

Comb, >i. English. A comb. Mamook comb, to coinb; inamook 
comb illahie, to harroio. 

Coo'-ley, v. French, COUREZ, imp. of COURIR. To run. Cooley 
kiuatan, a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuks cooley, he can, i.e., 
knows how to run well. 

Coop '-coop, n. Chinook, idem. The smaller sized dentalium or 
sliell money. See HYKWA. 

Co'-sho, n. French, COCHON. A hog ; pork. Siwash cosho, a seal; 
literally, Indian pig. 

Cul'-tus, adj. Chinook, KALTAS. Worthless; good for nothing; 
without purpose. Ex. Cultus man, a worthless fellow; cultus pot- 
latch, a present or free gift; cultus heehee, a jest ; merely laugh 
ing; cultus nannitsh, to look around ; cultus mitlite, to sit idle; 
to do nothing; cultus klatawa, to stroll. Ques. What do you 
want ? Ans. Cultus, i. e., nothing. 

D. 

De late, or De-lett, adj., adv. French, DROITE. Straight ; direct ; 

without equivocation. Ex. Klatawa delett, go straight; delett 

wauwau, tell the truth. 
Di-aub, or Yaub, n. French, DIABLE. The devil. Sometimes 

used combined with the article, as LEJAUB. 
D'ly, or De-ly, adj. English, DRY. Chahko dely, to become dry; 

mamook dely, to dry, v. a. 
Doc'-tin, n. English. A doctor. 
Dor la. or Tah-la, n. English. A dollar; money. Chikamin 

dolla, silver; pil dolla, gold; dolla siaghost, spectacles. 

E. 

Eh-kah nam, n. Chinook, EKANAM. A tale or story. Used only 
on the Columbia river. Often erroneously pronounced Ay-keh-nam. 

Eh ko li, . Chinook, EKOLI. A whale. 

Ee'-na, n. Chinook, IINA. A beaver. Eena stick (literally, beaver 
wood], the willow. 



4 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Ee'-na-poo, or In-a-poo, . Chinook, INAPU. A louse. Sopen 
inapoo, a flea. 

Ek'-keh, n. Chinook, EKKE. A brother-in-law. 

E'-la-han, or Elann, . Chihalis, YELAAN. Aid; assistance; 
alms. Mamook elann, to help. 

E'-lip, or El'-ip, adv. Chihalis, ILIP. First; before. The super 
lative. Klatawa clip, go before ; elip lolo chuck, in the first place 
carry water; elip kloshe, best; elip tilikuin, n. (literally, the first 
people), a race of beings who inhabited the world before the Indians. 

E-li'-te, n. Chinook, ILAITEKH. A slave. 

E salt'h, or Ye-salt'h, . Probably Wasco. Indian corn or 
maize. 

G. 

Get-up, or Ket-op, v. English. To get up ; rise. 
Glease, n. English, GREASE. Fat, grease, or oil. Hyeu glease, 
very fat ; too-toosh glease, butter. See, also, LAKLES. 



H. 

Hah lakl, adj. Chinook, HALAKL. Wide; open. Ex. Mamook 
hahlakl la pote, open the door; chahko hahlakl (as of the woods), 
to open out; become less dense. 

Haht-haht. . Nisqually, HATHAT. The mallard duck. 

Hak-at-shum, n. English. A handkerchief. 

Ha'-lo, adj. Quaere u. d. not Chinook. None; absent. Q. Halo 
salmon mika ? have you no fish ? A. Halo, none. Q. Kah mika 
papa 1 where is your father ? A. Halo, he is out. Halo wind, 
breathless; dead; halo glease, lean ; halo ikta, poor; destitute. 

Haul, v. English, idem. To haul or pull. Used with the active 
verb mamook; as, mamook haul. 

Hee'-hee, n. By onoma., Him (Hale). Laughter, amusement. 
Cultus heehee, fun ; mamook heehee, to amuse ; heehee honse, 
any place of amusement, as a tavern, bowling-alley, <fec. 

Hoh hoh, n., v. Chinook (by onoma.), HOKHHOKH. To couyh. 

H6-ku melh, v. Chihalis, idem. To gather ; to glean, as grain. 
Of local use. 

Hool-hool, n. Chinook, KUOLKHOL; Klikatat. KHOILKHOIL. A 
mouse. Hyas hoolhool, a rat. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. D 

House, . English. A house. Mahkook house, a store ; Boston 
house, an American-built house, as distinguished from a lodge. 

Howh, interj. HAUKH. Turn to; hurry. 

How'-kwutl, adv. Chinook, HAUKATLH. An expression of in 
ability. Ex. Howkwutl nika klatawa ? ho 10 could I go ? 

Hul-lel', v. n. Chinook, idem. To sliake. Used with the verb 
inamook, as, mauiook hullel, it becomes active. 

Hul-6-i-ma, n., adj. Chinook, S'HULLOYIBA. Other ; another ; 
different. Ex. Huloima tilikum, a different tribe or people ; hyas 
huloima, very different. 

Humm. n., v. Jargon. A stink or smell ; to stink. An invented 
word. Humm opootsh, a skunk. 

Hunl'-kih, adj. Chinook, HUNLKEKH. Curled or curly ; knotted; 
crooked. 

Huy-huy, n., v. Canadian French, HUI-HUI. A bargain or ex 
change; to barter or trade. Ex. Huyhuy la sille, change the saddle ; 
luiyhuy turn turn, to change one's mind. Mr. Anderson says this is 
a cant word of the Canadians, signifying a hasty exchange. Its 
origin has been suggested in oui oui, yes yes. 

Hwah. or Hwah-wa, interj. Denotes surprise or admiration ; also 
earnestness. 

Hy'-ak, adv., also used as imperative. Chinook, AI-AK. Swift; 
fast; quickly; hurry; make haste. 

Hy-as', adj., adv. Probably corrupted from the following. Large ; 
great; very. The general term for size. Hyas tyee, a great chief; 
hyas rnahcook, a great price; dear; hyas ahnkutte, a long time 
ago ; hyas kloshe, very good. 

Hy-iu, .,(//. Nootka, IYAHISH (Jewitt); Tokwaht, AIYA. Jewitt 
also gives HYO as the name for ten. Much; many; plenty; 
enough. Term of quantity or multitude. Hyiu tilikum, a crowd ; 
many people; hyiu muckamuck, plenty to eat; tenas hyiu, some ; 
a few ; wake hyiu, not many or not much. 

Hy'-kwa, or Hy'-a-kwa, n. Nootka, HAIHWA (i-whaw, Jewitt). 
The dentalium ; the shell money or wampum of the Pacific coast. 
It is used in strings of a fathom long; shells of not more than forty 
to the fathom being of full size, and the value increasing in propor 
tion to their length. The smaller sizes are called coop-coop (q. v.). 
These shells were formerly obtained by the Indians of the Avest 
coast of Vancouver Island, and passed in barter as low down as 
California, and eastward to the Blackfoot country. 



DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 



I. 

Ik'-kik, n. Chinook, IKKIK. Ajish-hook. 

Ik-poo'-ie, v. Chinook, IKHPUI. To shut. Ikpooie la pote, shut 

the door ; inamook ikpooie, to surround; ikpooie kwillan, deaf. 
Ikt, or Icht, adj. Chinook, IKHT. One ; once. Used also as the 

indefinite article. Ikt man, a man; ikt-ikt man, some one or other; 

here and there one ; ikt nika klatawa kopa yakka house, / have been 

once to his house. 
Ik -tah, pron. Chinook, IKTA. What. Iktah okook, what is that ? 

iktah mika tikegh, what do you want ? iktah, well, what now '* 
Ik -tah., n. From the foregoing. A thing; goods; merchandise; 

clothing. Hyiu tenas iktah, a great many trifles. The use of the 

same word for what and for things, has been noticed in some other 

languages of this coast. 
II -la-hie, . Chinook, ILAHEKH. Tlie ground; the earth; dirt. 

Tipso illahie, prairie; saghallie illahie, mountains, or high land; 

heaven ; hyiu illahie kopa, dirty (literally, much dirt upon). 
In'-a-ti, or Een-a-ti, prep., adv. Chinook, INATAI. Across; oppo 
site to ; on the other side of. Inati chuck, on the other side of the 

river; klatawa inati, to cross over. 
Ip'-SOOt, v. a., v. n. Chinook, ALHUPSO. To hide one's self, or any 

thing ; to keep secret. Ipsoot klatawa, to steal off; ipsoot wau-wau, 

to whisper. 

Is'-ick, n. Chinook, ISIK. A paddle. Mamook isick, to paddle. 
Is ick stick, n. Chinook and English. The ash. Literally, pad 
dle-wood. 
Is'-kum, v. Chinook, idem. To take ; take hold of; hold; get. 

Iskum okook lope, hold on to that rope; mika na iskum? did you 

get it ? 
It Ian, or It'h-lan, n. Chinook, ITIILANA. A fathom ; the length 

of the extended arms. 
It lo-kum, n. Chinook, idem ; Chihalis, SETLOKUM. The yame of 

" hand" a common amusement. Mamook itlokum, to gamble. 
Itl'-wil-lie, n. Chinook, ETLWILI. The flesh; meat of any animal. 

Konaway nika ithvillie sick, all my flesh is sore. 
Its'-WOOt, or Its'-hoot, n. Chinook, EITSHHUT. A black bear. 

Itshoot paseesie, thick dark cloth or blankets. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 



K. 

Kah, adv. Chinook, KAKH. Where; whither; whence. Kah mika 

mitlite? where do you live? konaway kah, everywhere; kah-kali, 

here and there. 
Kah'-kah, n. Chinook and Nisqually (by onoma.), SKAKA. A 

crow. 
Kahkwa, adv. Nootka; Tokwaht, ACHKO. Like; similar to; 

equal with ; as. Kahkwa nika tumtum, so I think (literally, such 

[is] my heart] ; kahkwa hyas nika, as large as I; kahkwa spose, 

as if; kloshe kahkwa, that is right; good so. 
Kah'-na-way, n. Chinook, T'KANAW^. Acorns. Kahnaway stick, 

the oak. Used only on the Columbia river. 

Kahp-ho. in. Chinook, idem. An elder brother, sister, or cousin. 
Kah-ta, adv. ' Chinook, KATA. How; why. Kahta mika mamook 

okook? why do you do that? kahta mika chahko? how did you 

come? kahta mika? what is the matter with you? pe kahta? and 

why so ? 
Kal-ak-a-lah ma, n. Chinook, OKALAKALAMA. A goose. Used 

on the lower Columbia river. 
Kal-a-kwah-tie, n. Chinook, KALAKWATI ; Clatsop, KL'WHELATL. 

The inner bark of the cedar (thuja) ; the petticoat, or skirt, formerly 

worn by women, and often made of strands of bark. Kalakwahtie 

stick, the cedar-tree. 
Ka-li'-tan, n. Chinook, TKLAITAN. An arrow; shot; a bullet. 

Kalitan le sac, a quiver ; a shot-pouch. 
Kal-lak'-a-la, or Kul-luk'-ul-la, n. Chinook, KALAKALA. A 

bird. 
Kam-ass, or La-karri ass, n. Nootka. The Scilla esculcnta, a 

bulbous root used for food by the Indians. Jewitt gives CHAMASS 

as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, or pleasant to the taste. 
Kam-ooks, n. Chinook, KLKABOKKS. A dog. Kahkwa kamooks, 

like a dog ; beastly. 
Ka-mo'-suk, n. Chinook, idem. Beads. Tyee kamosuk (chiei 

beads), the large blue glass beads. 
Kap-su-al-la. Quaere u. d. To steal. Kapsualla klatawa, to steal 

away ; kapsualla mamook, to do secretly. 
Kat-suk, or K6t-Sllk, n. Chinook, idem. The middle or centre 

of any* thing. 
Kau'-py, n. English. Coffee. 



DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JAKGON. 

Ka-wak, v. Chihalis, KAUAK. To fly. Not in general use. 

Kaw-ka-wak, adj. Chinook, KAKAWAK. Yellow, or pale green. 

Kee-kwil-lie, prep. Chinook, KIK'HWILI. Low; below ; under ; 
leneath; down. Mamook keekwillic, to lower; mitlite keekwillie, 
to set down; put under. Not used in the sense of "down stream." 

Keep '-wot, n. Chinook, OKWEPOWA ; Yakama, KAPUS, a pin (Pan- 
dosy). A needle ; the sting of an insect ; a thorn. Shoes keepwot, 
an awl. 

Keh'-loke, n. Chinook, idem. A swan. Of local use only. 

Keh'-see, or Ki'-SU, n. Chinook, EKESO. An apron. 

Keh-wa, adv. Quaere u. d. Because. Not in common use. 

Kel'-a-pi, or Ka-la-pi, v. Chinook, KELAPAI. To turn; return; 
overturn; upset. Kelapi canim, to upset a canoe; hyak kelapi, 
come back quickly ; kelapi kopa house, go back to the house ; ma- 
mook kelapi, to bring, send, or carry back; kelapi tumtum, to 
change one's mind. 

Kes'-chi, or Keh-tsie. Chinook, KUKHTSI (Anderson). Notwith 
standing; although. Keschi yakka mamook kahkwa, although he 
did so. Not in common use. 

Ket '-ling, or Kit '-ling, n. English. A kettle; can; basin, <fec. 

Kil-it'-sut, n. Chinook, OKWILIKTSHUT. Flint; a bottle; glass. 

Kim'-ta, or Kim-tah', prep. Chinook, KIMTA. Behind; after ; 
afterwards; last; since. Klatawa kimtah, go behind; nika elip, pe 
yakka kimtah, / first, and he afterwards; okook kimtah, the one 
behind; kimtah nika nannitsh mika, since I saw you. 

King Chautsh, adj. English, KING GEORGE. English. King 
chautshman, an Englishman. 

Ki'-nootl, or Ki -noos, n. Chinook, EKAINUTL. Tobacco. 

Kish-kLsh, v. Chinook, idem. To drive, as cattle or horses. 

Kiu'-a-tan, n. Chinook, IKIUATAN. Cooley kiuatan, a race-horse ; 
stone kiuatan, a stallion. 

Ki'-wa, o.dj. Wasco, KAIWA (Shaw). Crooked. Of only local use. 

Ki'-yah, n. Chihalis, KAIYAKH. Entrails. 

Klah, adj. Chinook, KLAKH. Free or clear from ; in sight. Ex. 
Chee yakka klah, now he is in sight ; klatawa klah, to escape, as a 
prisoner; chahko klah (of seed), to come up; (of the woods), to 
open out; (of the weather), to clear up; mamook klah, to uncover. 
Mr. Anderson gives as the original meaning, to open out or appear. 

Klah hanie , or Klagh-anie', adv. Chinook, KLAKHANI. Out oj 
doors; out; without. Ex. Mamook klaghanie okook, put that 
out; klatawa klaghanie, to go out* 



PART I. CHINOOK KNGUSfT. 9 

Kla'-how-ya. The ordinary salutation at meeting or parting. 

How do you do? good-bye; as, klahowya sikhs, good-bye, friend. 
Kla-hoW-yum, adj., n. Chinook, KI.AHAUIA. Poor ; miserable; 

wretched ; compassion. Ex. Hyas klahowyum nika, / am very 

poor; mamook klaliowyum, to take pity on; give alms; be gen 
erous. % 

The salutation above given probably originated in some whining 

reply to the first whites, and a distinction has since arisen between 

the two modes of spelling, which is, however, purely arbitrary. 
Klah-wa, adv. Chinook, KLAWAKH. Slow; slowly. Ex. Kla- 

tawa klahwa, go slowly. 
Klak, adv. Chinook, KLAKW. [To take] off. Ex. Mamook klak 

stone kiuatan, to castrate a horse ; mamook klak 1'assiette, take off 

the plates ; klak kopa wayhut, get out of the road. 
Klak-sta, or Kluk'-sta, pron. Chinook, TKLUKSTA. Ex. Klak- 

sta mamook okook ? who made or did that ? halo klaksta, no one. 
Klak-wun, or Kleh kwan, v. Chihalis, KLAKWUN. To wipe, or 

lick. Klakwun 1'assiette, to wipe a plate. 
Klale, or Tklale, adj. Chinook, TLEHL. Black, or dark blue, or 

green. 
Klap, v. Chinook, KLAP. To find. Ex. Mika na klap mika 

kiuatan ? did you find your horse. ? klap tenas, to be with child. 
Kla'-pite, n. Chinook, KLIPAIT. Thread ; twine. 
Klas-ka, or Klus'-ka, pron. Chinook, KLUSKA. They ; thine; 

them. 
Klat'-a-wa, ?'. Nootka, KLATTURWAH (Jewitt); Nittinat, KLAT- 

OUKH. To go. Klatawa tea h wit, to walk; go on foot ; klatawa 

kopa kiuatan, to ride; klatawa kopa boat, to sail; mamook klatawa, 

to send. 
Kla-whap, n. Chinook, KI.HUAP. A hole. Mamook klawhap, to 

dig a hole. 
Klem'-a-hun, v. Chihalis, idem. To stab; to wound; to dart; 

to cast as a spear; to hook or aoi-e as an ox. Nika klemahnn 

samun, / spear salmon. 
Klihl, or Klilt, adj. Chinook, KMHI,. Bitter. Not of universal 

use. Mr. Hale makes it KLITL, sour. 
Klik'-a-muks, n. Chinook, KLIKABCKS. Blackberries, or more 

properly dewberries. 
Klik'-wal-lie, or Kloke'-Wal-lie. Chinook, KLIKWALT. Brass 

wire; an armlet or bracelet of brass wire. Mr. Anderson gives the 

original meaning as simply brass. 



10 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

' 

Klim-in'-a-whit, ., v. Chinook, KLTMINAWHUT. A lie; to lit. 

Ilyas kumtuks kliininawhit, he is a great liar (literally, he knows 

well how to lie). 
Klim -min, or Klimmin-TrHmmin, adj. Chinook, TKLEMIN- 

TKLEMIN. Soft; fine in substance. The reduplication denotes the 

diminutive, but in jargon it is generally used singly. Ex. Klimmin 

sapoleel, flour; klimmin illahie, mud; marshy ground; mamook 

klimmin, to soften as by dressing a skin. 
Klip, adj. Chinook, KELIPE ; Chihalis, KLUPUTL ; Nisqually, KLEP. 

Deep; sunken. Klip chuck, deep water; klip sun, sunset. 
Klis'-kwiss, n. Chinook, idem. A mat. 
Klogh-klogh, n. Chinook, OKLOKHKLO. Oysters. The word is 

common to the Puget Sound tribes, as well as to the Chinooks. 
Klo-nass, adv. Chinook, idem. Expression of uncertainty or doubt. 

Perhaps; I don't know; maybe so; icho knows? Equivalent to 

the Spanish quien sale. Ex. Klonass nika klatawa, perhaps I shall 

go. Q. Kah mika kahpho? where is your brother ? A. Klonass, 

/ don't know. 

Kloue, adj. Chinook, TKLON. Three. 

Klook, adj. English. Crooked. Klook teahwit, broken legged; lame. 
Klootch-man, n. Nootka and Tokwaht, KLUTSMA. A woman ; a 

female of any animal. Tenas klootshman, a girl ; klootchman kiu- 

atan, a mare. 
Klose, or Kloshe, adj., adv. Nootka ; Tokwaht, KLOHTL ; Makah, 

KLOTKLO; Nisqually, KLOB. Good; well; well enough. Kloshe 

nannitsh, look out; take care ; hyas kloshe, very well. 
Klose-spose. Nootka, KLOHTL ; English, SUPPOSE. Shall or may 

I ; let me. Ex. Klose-spose nika mamook pia okook ? shall I cook 

that ? (literally, [is it] good that I make cook that ?). 
Klugh, or Klugh-klugh. Chinook, KLUKH. To tear. Mamook 

klugh illahie, to plough (literally, to tear the ground). 
Kluk-ulh , or Klak alh', adj. Chihalis, TLUKUTLH. Broad or 

wide, as of a plank. 
Ko, v. Chinook, idem. To reach; arrive at. Chee klaska ko, they 

have just come; kansih nesika ko kopa Nisqually? when shall we 

reach Nisqualhi. 

Ko'-ko, v. Chinook (by onoma.). To knock. Koko stick, a wood 
pecker. 
Kok'-shut, ?'. Nootka, KAKHSHETL ; Klaokwat, KWACHITL. In the 

original, dead. To break ; broken ; to beat. Hyas kokshut, broken 

to pieces. \ 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 11 

Kon'-a-way, adj. Chinook, KANAW&. All; every. Klaska kon 
away klatawa, they have all gone; konaway tilikum, everybody ; 
konaway kah, everyiohere. 

Koo'-sah, or K6-sah, n. Chinook, EKOSAKH. The sky. Only 
used on the Columbia. 

Ko'-pa, adv., prep. Chinook, idem. To; in; at; with; towards; 
of; about ; concerning ; there or in that place. Ex. Kopa nika house, 
at my house; lolo okook kopa mika, take that home with you 
(equivalent to the French chez vows) ; cultus kopa nika, it is nothing 
to me. Q. Kah okook lope! ichere is that rope? A. (motioning 
with the chin towards the place) Kopah. 

Ko-pet', v., adv. Chinook, idem. To stop; leave off; enough. 
Kopet wau-wau, stop talking ; kopet ikt, only one ; kopet okook, 
that s all; wake siah kopet, nearly finished; kopet tomalla, day 
after to-morrow. 

Kow, v. Chinook, KAU-KAU. To tie; to fasten. Kow mika kiua- 
tan, tie your horse; ikt kow, a bundle. 

Kull, adj. Chinook, K'HUL-K'HUL. Hard in substance; difficult. 
Chahko kull, to become hard ; marnook kull, to harden; to cause to 
become hard ; hyas kull spose mamook, it is very hard to do so; 
kull stick, oak or any hard wood. 

Kul-lagh', or Kul-lagh'-an, n. Chihalis, KULLAKH ; Lummi, KUL- 
LUKHAN. A fence; a corral, or inclosure. Kullagh stick, fence 
rails. In the original, it meant the stockade with which Indian 
houses are often surrounded. 

Kum-tuks, or Kame-taks, v. Nootka, KOMMETAK (Jewitt); 
Tokwaht, KUMITUKS ; Clayoquot, KEMITAK. To know ; understand ; 
be acquainted with; imagine; believe. Mamook kumtuks, to ex 
plain; teach; hyas kumtuks solleks (literally, well to understand 
anger), to be passionate ; kopet kumtuks, to forget ; halo kumtuks, 
stupid; ivithout understanding ; (of a horse) hyas yakka kumtuks 
cooley, he can run fast (literally, he knows loell to run) ; kumtuks 
kliminawhit, to be a liar ; to understand lying ; nika kumtuks okook 
tyee, / know that chief; nika kumtuks Klikatat wau-wau, / under 
stand the Klikatat language. 

Kun'-a-moxt, adj. Chinook, KONAWAY MOXT. Both; together 
(literally, all two). Kunamoxt kahkwa, both alike. 

Kun'-sih, Kan'-sih, Kun'-juk, Kun'-jie, adv. Chinook, Kux- 
sSuKH. How many; ichen; ever. Kunsih tilikum mitlite? how 
many people are there ? kunsih mika klatawa ? when do you go ? 
wake kunsih, never; mamook kunsih, to count. 



12 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 



Kush -is, . Chihalis, KOSHIS. Stockings. In the original, any 

clastic article of dress. Not in general use. 
Kwah'-ne-sum, adv. Chinook, KWANISUM ; Yakama, KWALISIM. 

Always ; forever. 

Kwah-nice, n. Klikatat, KWADUIS. A whale. 
Kwahta, . English. The quarter of a dollar. The quarter of 

any number is usually expressed in Jargon by tenas sitkum, i.e., a 

small half. 

Kwah'-tin. See YAKWAHTIN. 

Kwaist, or Kweest, adj. Chinook, KWAITST. Nine. 
Kwa-lal'-lrwa-lal', v. Chinook, KWULLIL-KWULLIL. To gallop. 
Kwal'h, . Chihalis, KWATLH. An aunt. 
Kwann, adj. Chinook, KWAN-KWAN. Glad. According to Mr. 

Anderson, it means a custom or habit. It is used .by some in this 

sense as tamed or broken, as of a horse (McCormick). KWAL is 

Nisqually for tame. 
Kwass, ., adj. Chinook, idem. Fear; afraid; tame. Mamook 

kwass, to frighten; to tame. 

Kwates, or Kwehts, adj. Chihalis, KWETS. Sour. 
Kweh-kweh, n. Chinook, OKWEKWE (by onoma.). A mallard 

duck. Used chiefly at mouth of the Columbia. 
Kwek-wi-ens, n. Chihalis, idem. A pin. Of limited use. 
Kweo-kweo, . Chinook, TKWEO-KWEO. A ring ; a circle. 
Kwetlh., adj. Chihalis, idem. (Anderson.) Proud. Not in gen 
eral use. 

Kwin'-num, adj. Chinook, KWENKM. five. 
Kwish, or Kweesh, inter j. Refusing any thing contemptuously. 

Equivalent to " No you don't" Used on the lower Columbia. 
Kwit -shad ie, n. Nisqually, KWUTSHDIE. The hare or rabbit. 

Confined to Puget Sound. 
Kwo-lann', or Kwo-lah'-nie, n. Chihalis, KAVOLAN ; Nisqually, 

KWILANI. The ear. Halo kwolann, or,"ikpooie kwolann, deaf. 
Kwulh, or Kwult, v. Chinook, KWULT'H. To hit; to wound 

loith an arrow or gun ; to strike with a stick or stone; or in any 

manner without cutting ; to hit. 
Kwun'-min, n. Chihalis, idem. A count ; numbers. Ex. Mamook 

kwunnun, to count. Of merely local use. 
Kwutl, adj. Chinook, idem. Literally, fast. To push or squeeze, 

as in packing ; hyas maraook kwutl, haul tight. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 13 



L. 

La-bleed', n. French, LA BKIUE. A bridle. 

La-boos', n. French, LA BOUCHE. The mouth; mouth of a river 

Moxt laboos, the forks of a liver. 
La-boo-ti', n. French, LA BOUTEILLE. A bottle. 
La-ca-lat', n. French, LA GAROTTE. A carrot. 
La-ca-set', n. French, LA CASETTE. A box, trunk, or chest. 
La-clo-a, n. French, LA CROIX. A cross. 
Lagh, v. Chinook, LAKH. To lean; to tip, us a, boat; to stoop ; tc 

bend over, as a tree. Wake mika lagh kopa okook house, don't lean 

uf/ainst that house. 
La-gome, . French, LA GOMME. Pitch; glue. La gome stick, 

Ugh t-wood ; the pitch-pine. 

La-gwin', or La-kween', n. Quaere u. d. A saw. 
La-hal. See SLAHAL. 
Lahb, n. French, L'HERBE. The arbutus uva ursi, the leaves of 

which are used in smoking, alone or mixed with tobacco. 
La-hash, n. French, LA HACHE. An axe or hatchet. 
La-kam-mas'. See KAMASS. 
Lak'-it, or Lok'-it, adj. Chinook, LAKT. four; four times. 

Lakit taht-lelum, forty. 

La'-kles, n. French, LA GRAISSE. Fat; oil. See, also, GLEASE. 
La-lah, v. Chinook, LAKHWHOLA. To cheat ; fool ; to practise jokes. 

Mamook lalah, to make fun. 
La-lahm', or La-lum', n. French, LA RAME. An oar. Mamook 

lalahm, to row. 

La-laug, n. French, LA LANGUE. The tongue; a language. 
La-leem', . French, LA LIME. A file. 
La-messe', n. French, idem. The ceremony of the mass. 
La-mes-tin, or La-mo-tchin, n. French, LA MEDECINE. Mede- 

due, not including magic. 
Lam'-mi-eh, or Lam-mi-i, n. French, LA VIEILLE. An old 

woman. 

La mon-ti, or La-mo-ti, n. French, LA MONTAGNE. A mountain. 
La-peep', n. French, LA PIPE. A tobacco-pipe. Lapeep kullakala 

(literally, the "pipe-bird"), the band-tailed eagle, as its feathers 

were used to ornament the pipe stems. 
La-pehsh, . French, LA PERCHE. A pole ; the setting-pole of a 

boat or canoe. 



14 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

La -pel-lab. *'. Quaere if from the French, LE FOYER. Mamook 
lapellah, (u roast before the fire. 

La-pelle', n. French, LA PELLE. A shovel or spade. 

La-pe osh', n. French, LA PIOCHE. A mattock; a hoe. 

La piege, n. French, LA PIECE. A trap. Eena la piege, a 
beaver-trap. 

La-plash, n. French, LA BLANCHE. A board. 

La-po-el', n. French, LA POELE. A frying-pan. Mamook lapoel, 
to fry. 

La-pome, n. French, LA POMME. An apple. 

La-pool', n. French, LA POULE. A fowl; poultry. Siwash lapool, 
the grouse. 

La poo-shet , n. French, LA FOURCHETTE. A fork. 

La pote, n. French, LA PORTE. A door. 

La s an j el, n. French, LA CINGLE. A girth; a sash; a belt. 

La see, n. French, LA SCIE. A saw. 

La-sell', n. French, LA SELLE. A saddle. 

La-shal loo, or La-shal-lee, n. French, LA CHARRUE. A plough. 

La slian del, n. French, LA CHANDELLE. A candle. 

La-shase, n. French, LA CHAISE. A chair. 

La-shen', n. French, LA CHAINE. A chain. 

Las-siet', n. French, L'ASSIETTE. A plate. 

La-sway, n., adj. French, LA SOIE. Silk; silken. 

La- 1 abb, n. French, LA TABLE. A table. 

La-tet', n. French, LA TETE. The head. Pil latet, red-headed. 

La-tlah', n. French, TRAIN ; as, " ne faites pas de train." (Ander 
son). A noise. Mamook latlah, to make a noise. 

La-wen', n. French, L'AVOINE. Oats. 

La-west', n. French, LA VESTE. A waistcoat. 

Lazy, adj. English, idem. Lazy. 

Le-bah-do (often pronounced lab'-a-do), n. French, LE BARDEAU. 
A shingle. 

Le-baT, n. French, idem. A ball; bullet. Tenas lebal, shot. 

Le-bis'-kwie, n. French, LE BISCUIT. Biscuit; crackers; hard 
bread. 

Le-blau', ., adj. French, LE BLOND. A sorrel horse; chestnut 
colored. 

Le clem', ., adj. French, LE CREME. Cream-colored; a cream- 
colored or light dun horse. 

Le cock', n. French, LE COQ. A cock; a fowl. 

Le-doo', n. French, LE DOIGT. A finger. 



PAET I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 15 

Le-gley, ., adj. French, LE GRIS, or English GRAY, with French 

article. A gray horse; gray. 
Le-jaub'. See DIAUB. 
Le-kleh, n. French, LE CLEF. A key. Mamook le kleh, lock the 

door. 

Le-kloo', n. French, LE CLOU. A nail; nails. 
Le-koo', n. French, LE cou. The neck. 
Le-ky'e, n., adj. Mr. Anderson derives this from a Canadian word 

caille, meaning a piebald horse. In its jargon use, it means, also, a 

spot, spotted, or speckled; as, lekye salmon, the spotted or winter 

salmon (salmo canis, Suckley). . 

Le-lo'-ba, . French, LE RUBAN. A ribbon. 
Le-loo', n. French, LE LOUP. A wolf (the large wolf). 
Le-mah, or Leh-ma, n. French, LA MAIN. The hand; the arm. 

Kloshe lemah, the right (literally, the good hand) ; potlatch lemah, 

shake hands. 

Le-mah-to, n. French, LE MARTEAU. A hammer. 
Le-mel', n. French, LE MULET. A mule. 
Le-xno'-lo, ., adj. French Canadian, LE MORON; undoubtedly a 

corruption of MARRON, a runaway negro. Wild; untamed. It ap 
plies to men as well as animals, as, for instance, to the tribes which 

have had no intercourse with the settlements. 

Le-moo'-to, or Lam'-mu-to, n. French, LES MOUTONS. Sheep. 
Le-pan', n. French, LE PAIN. Bread; raised or light bread. 
Le-pee', . French, LE PIED. The feet. 
Le-pish'-e-mo, n. Quaere u. d. The saddle-blanket and housings 

of a horse. 

Le-plet, n. French, LE PRETRE. A priest. 
Le-pwau', n. French, LES POIS. Peas. 
Le-sak', n. French, LE SAC. A bag ; a pocket. 
Le-sap', or Le-zep', n. French, LES CEUFS. An egg; eggs. 
Le-see-blo, n. French, LES EPERONS. Spurs. 
Le-see-ZO, n. French, LE CISEAU. Scissors. 
Le-sook, n. French, LE SUCRE. Sugar. 
Le-tah, n. French, LE DENT. The teeth. 
Le-whet', n. French, LE FOUKT. A whip. Mamook lewhet, to 

whip. ^ 

Lice, n. English. Rice. 
Lik-pu'-hu, or Lik'-po, . (Hale.) An elder sister. Mr. Hale 

gives this as a Chinook word. If so, it is probably a corruption of 

KUP'HO. It is not used in Jargon. 



16 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Lip -lip, v. By onoma. (Hale). To boil. Mamook liplip, to make, 

or cause to boil. 
L6-lo, v. Chinook, idem. Originally, to carry a child on the back. 

In Jargon, used in a more extended sense. To carry; to load. 

Lolo kopa tsiktsik, to carry in a cart. Mamook lolo kopa canim, 

to load into a canoe. 
Lo-lo', adj. Chinook, LOWULLO. Round ; whole ; the entire of any 

thing. Lolo sapeleel, whole wheat ; mamook lolo, to roll up (Shaw). 
Lope, TO. English, ROPE. A rope. Tenas lope, a cord ; skin lope, 

a raw hide, riata, or thong. 
Luk'-ut-chee, or La-kwit-chee, n. French, LA COQUILLE. (?) 

Clams. Used chiefly on Puget Sound. 
Lum, 11. English, RUM. Spirits of any sort. 

M. 

Mah kook, v., n. Nootka, MAKUK ; Nittinat and Tokwaht, idem ; 
Makah, BAKWATL. To buy or sell; trade or exchange; a bargain. 
As their buying and selling was merely barter, the same word always 
answered for both operations. Kah mika mahkook okook calipeen ? 
where did you buy that rifle ? hyas mahkook, dear ; tenas mahkook, 
cheap. 

Mah kook-house. A trading-house or a store. 

Mall-lie, v. Nisqually. To forget. Of local use on Puget Sound. 

Mahsh, v. a. French, MARCHER. To leave ; to turn out; to throw 
away ; to part with; remove. Ex. Mahsh chuck kopa boat, bail 
the boat out; mahsh okook salmon, throw away that Jish; mahsh 
maika capo, take off your coat; mahsh! (to a dog) get out! mahsh 
tenas, to have a child ; to be delivered; yakka mahsh turn-turn kopa 
nika, he has given me his orders, or told me his wishes; mahsh kow, 
to untie; mahsh stone, Jo castrate. 

Mah-sie, v. French, MERCIE. Thank you. 

Maht-lin-nie, adv. Chinook, MATLINI. Offshore. (In boating), 
keep off! (if on land), towards the water. 

Maht-wil-lie, adv. Chinook, MATHWILI. In shore; shoreioard. 
(As a command), keep in; (on land), towards the woods, or the 
interior. 

Ma-lah, n. Chinook, MALAGH. Tinware; crockery; earthenware. 

Mal-i-eh, v. French, MARIER. To marry. 

Ma'-ma, 71. English, MAMMA. A mother. 

Mam'-ook, v . a. Nootka, MAMUK. To make; to do; to work. It 



PAHT I. CHINOOK KNGLISIT. 17 

is the general active verb, and is used largely in combination with 
nouns and other verbs; as, mamook chahko, make to come, fetch; 
mamook kelipai, briny or send back; mamook isick, to paddle; 
mamook illahee, to dig. 

Man, . English, idem. A man; the male of any animal. Ex. 
Man moolock, a buck elk ; tenas man, a young man or boy. 

Mel-a-kwa, or Mal-a-kwa, n. French, MARANGOUIN. (Ander 
son.) A mosquito. 

Mel -ass, r>. French, ME LASS K. Molasses. 

Mem'-a-loost, v., n., part. Chinook, MEMALUST. To die; dead. 
Mamook memaloost, to kill. 

Me-sah-chie, adj. Chinook, MASACHI. Bad ; wicked. 

Me-si'-ka, pron. Chinook, MESAIKA. You; your; yours. 

Mi'-ka, pron. Chinook, MAIK A. Thou; thy; thine. 

Mi'-mie, adv. Chinook, MAIAMI. Down, stream. 

Mist-chi'-mas, n. Quaere u. d. A slave. Dr. Scouler gives this 
word as Nootka and Columbian. Mr. Hale makes it Chinook. It 
is certainly, however, neither Chinook nor Chihalis; and Jewitt' 
gives kakoelth t as Nootka, while I find the Makah word kotlo, and 
the Nittinat kotl. 

Mit-ass, n. Cree, MITAS. (Anderson.) Leggings. A word im 
ported by the Canadian French. 

Mit'-lite, v. Chinook, MITLAIT. . To nit; xtt, down; stay at; re- 
silie; remain. It is also used in place of to have and to be. Ex. 
Mitlite kopa house, he is in the house; mitlite hyiu salmon kopa 
mika? have you plenty of salmon? mitlite (imp.), sit down; cultus 
mitlite, to stop anywhere without particular object; mitlite tenas, to 
be with child; mitlite keekwillie, to put down. 

Mit'-whit, v. Chinook, AMETWHET. To stand; stand up. Mit- 
whit stick, a standing tree ; a mast. 

Mokst, adj. Chinook, MAKST. Tivo ; twice. 

Moo'-la, n. French, MOULIN. A mill. Stick moola, a saw-mill. 

Moo'-lock, n. Chinook, EMULUK. An elk. This word, strangely* 
enough, occurs also in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay. 

Moon, n. English, idem. The moon. Ikt moon, a month ; sick 
moon, the wane or old moon. 

Moos'-moos, v. Klikatat, MUSMUS ; Chinook, EMUSMUS. Buffalo , 
horned cattle. The word, slightly varied, is common to several lan 
guages. Mr. Anderson derives it from the Cree word mooatoos, a 
buffalo, and supposes it to have been imported by the Canadians ; 
but Father Pandosy makes ?nut<mus Yakama. 



18 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

IVIoo sum, ''.,. Chihalis, MUSAM. To sleep; sleep. Tikegh moo- 
sura, or olo moosum, to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be hungry for 
sleep) ; nika hyas moosum, / slept very sound. 

Mow itsh. or Mah'-witsh, n. Nootka, MAUITSH (Hale) ; Nit- 
tinat, MOITSH, a deer; Nootka, MOOWATSH, a bear (Jewitt). A 
deer; venison. Frequently used to signify a wild animal ; as, hul- 
oima mowitch, a strange or different kind of beast. The meaning 
given in Jewitt's book is probably a misprint. Like moolock, an 
elk, tbe word is found in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay. 

Muck-a-muck, n., v. Quaere u. d. MAKAMAK (Hale). To eat ; to 
bite ; food. Muckamuck chuck, <fec., to drink water, or other liquid. 
Neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Mr. Anderson considers it an in 
vented word. 

Mus'-ket, . English, idem. A gun or musket. Stick musket, a 
bow. 

N. 

Na. The interrogative particle. Ex. Mika na klatawa okook sun ? 

do you go to-day ? Interrogation is, however, often conveyed by 

intonation only. 
Na ah, n. Chinook, TLKANAA. A mother. (Hale.) Peculiar to 

the Columbia, and now in fact obsolete, the English MA'MA being 

used instead. 
XT ah., interj. Common to several languages. Look here ! I say ! 

Nah sikhs ! halloo, friend ! Also used in common conversation to 

call attention to some point not thoroughly understood. In the 

Yakama language, it is the sign of the vocative ; as, nah tehn ! 

man. 
Nan'-itsh, v. Quaere u. d. To see; look; look for; seek. Nan- 

itsh! look there! kloshe nanitsh! look out! take care! cultus nan- 

itsh, to look round idly, or from curiosity only. Mamook nanitsh, to 
' show. The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. Scouler gives 

nannanitch as Nootka and Columbian. It is possibly the former. 
Nau'-its, adv. Chihalis, NOITSH. Mr. Hale gives this for off shore ; 

on the stream. It means, according to Mr. Anderson, the sea-beach, 

and is not properly a Jargon word. 
Na-wit'-ka, adv. Chinook, idem ; Klikatat and Yakama, N'WITKA. 

Yes ; certainly ; yes indeed ; to be sure. Nawitka wake nika kum- 

tuks, indeed I don't know. In answer to a negative question, many 

Indians use it as affirming the negative. Ex. Wake mika nanitsh 

did you not sec [?'<] ? Xawitka, / did not. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 19 

Nem, n. English, NAME. A name. Mamook nem, to name, or call 
by name. * 

Ne-nam-ooks, n. Chinook, ENANAMUKS. The land otter. 

Ne si'-ka, p-o. Chinook, NISAIKA. We; us; our. 

Ne'-whah. Chinook, NIWHA. It seems to be an adverb used, 
as is often the case, as a verb, the meaning being hither, come, or 
bring it hither. Ex. Newhah nika nanitsh, here, let me see it. 

Ni'-ka, pron. Chinook, NAIKA. /; me; my; mine. 

Nose, n. English, idem. The nose; also, a promontory. Boat 
nose, the bow of a boat. 

0. 

O'-koke, or O'-kook, pron. Chinook, OKOK. This; that; it. 

Iktah okook? what is that? okook sun, to-day; okook klaksta, he 

who; okook klaska, they (being present). It is often abbreviated 

to oke ; as, oke sun. 

O'-la-pits-ki, n. Chinook, OOLPITSKI. (Hale.) Fire. Not prop 
erly a Jargon word. 
O'-le-man, n., adj. English, OLD MAN. An old man; old; worn 

out. Hyas oleman kiuatan, a very old horse. As regards articles, 

used in the sense of worn out. 
Ol'-hy-iu, n. Chinook, OLHAIYU. A seal. 
O'-lil-lie, or O'-lal-lie, n. Belbella, idem. (Tolmie.) Originally 

the salmon berry. Chinook, KLALELLI, berries in general. Berries. 

Shot olillie, huckleberries ; siahpult olillie, raspberries ; salmon olillie, 

salmon berries, &c. On Puget Sound, always called OLALLIE. 
O'-lo, adj. Chinook, idem. Hungry. Olo chuck, thirsty; olo 

moosum, sleepy. 

O'-luk, n. Chihalis, idem. A snake. 
O'-na, n. Chinook, EONA. The razor fish or solen ; clams. Used 

only at mouth, of the Columbia. 
Oos'-kan, n. Chinook. A cup; a bowl. 
O'-pe-kwan, n. Chinook, OPEKWANH. A basket; tin kettle. 
O'-pitl-kegh, n. Chinook, OPTLIKE. A bow. 
O'-pit-sah, n. Chinook, 6ptSAKH. A knife. Opitsah yakka sikhs 

(the knife's friend), a fork. The word is also used to denote n 

sweetheart. 
O'-poots, or O'-pOOtsh, n. Chinook, OBEPUTSH, the fundament. 

The posterior ; the fundament ; the tail of an animal. Boat opoots, 

the rudder; opoots-sill, a breech clout. 



I 



20 DICTIONARY OF THli CHINOOK JARGON. 

Ote-lagh, n. (Hale.) Chinook, OOTLAKH. The sun. Not prop 
erly a Jargon word. 
Ow, M. Chinook, Au. A brother younger than the shaker. 

P. 

Pahtl, adj. Chinook, PATL. Full. 1'ahtl him or paht-luin, drunk; 
pahtl chuck, wet- pahtl illahic, dirty ; inamook pahtl, to Jill. 

Faint, or Pent, n., adj. English, PAINT. Mamook pent, to paint. 

Papa, n. English, idem. A father. 

Pa'see-sie, n. Chinook, PASISI. A blanket; woollen cloth. 

Pa-si'-ooks, n., adj. Chinook, PAsisiuxs. French; a French 
man. Mr. Hale supposed this to be a corruption of the French 
word Franfais. It is, however, really derived from the foregoing 
' word, PASISI, with the terminal UKS, which is a plural form ap 
plied to living beings. Lewis and Clarke (vol. ii., p. 413) give 
Pashisheooks, clothmen, as the Chinook name for the whites, and 
this explanation was also furnished me by people of that tribe. It 
has since been generally restricted to the French Canadians, though 
among some of the tribes east of the Cascade Range, it is applied 
indiscriminately to all the Hudson's Bay people. 

Pchih, or Pit-chih, adj. Quaere u. d. Thin in dimension, as of a 
board. (Shaw.) Not in common use. 

Pe-chugh, adj. Chinook, PTSEKH. Green. 

Pee, con/. French, Puis. (Anderson.) Then; besides; and; or; 
but. Pee weght, and also ; besides which ; pee nika wauwau wake, 
but I say, No. 

Peh'-pah, n. English, PAPER. Paper; a letter; any writiny. 
Mamook pehpah, to write. 

"Pel' -ton, n., adj. Jargon. A fool ; foolish ; crazy. Kahkwa pel- 
ton, like a fool; hyas pelton mika, you are very silly. 

The Indians adopted this word from the name of a deranged 
person, Archibald Pelton, or perhaps Felton, whom Mr. Wilson P. 
Hunt found on his journey to Astoria, and carried there with him. 
The circumstance is mentioned by Franchere, in his " Narrative," 
trans, p. 149. 

Pe-shak', or Pe-shuk', adj. Nootka, PESHUK; Nittinat, idem. 
Bad. 

Pe-what'-tie, adj. Chinook, PIIIWATI. Thin, like paper, &c. 

Pi'-ah, n., adj. English, FIRE. Fire; ripe; cooked. Mamook piali, 
to cook ; to burn; piah-ship, a steamer; piah olillie, ripe berries 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 21 

piah sapolill, baked bread; piah sick, the venereal disease ; saghillic 
piah, lightning. 

Pil, adj. Chinook, TLPELPKL. Father Pandosy gives PILPILP, as 
signifying red, in the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also. Red; of a red 
dish color. Pil illahie, red clay or vermilion; pil dolla, gold;-p\\ 
chickaruin, copper ; pil kiuatan, a bay or chestnut horse. 

Pil'-pil, n. Jargon. Blood. Mahsh pilpil, to bleed ; to menstruate. 
Derived from the foregoing. 

Fish, n. English, fish. 

Pit-lilh', or Pit-hlil', adj. Quare u. d. Thick in consistence, as 
molasses. 

Piu-piu, n. French, PUEK, to stink. Or from the sound often ut 
tered expressive of disgust at a bad smell. A skunk. 

Poll, v. Chinook, idem. By onoma. Mamook poh, to bloio out or 
extinguiah, as a candle. 

Po'-lak-lie, n., adj. Chinook, POLAKLI. Jfiyht ; darkness; dark. 
Tenas polaklie, evening ; hyas polaklie, late at night; very dark ; 
sit-kum polaklie, midnight (literally, the half night). 

Po'-lal^lie, n. Quaere French, POUDRE. Gunpowder ; dust; sand. 
Polallie illahie, sandy ground. The word i* certainly neither Chi 
nook uor Chihalis. 

Poo,?*. By onoma. (Hale.) The sound of a yun. Mauiook poo, 
to shoot; moxt poo, a double-barrelled yun; tohum poo, a six- 
shooter. Nisqually, OPOO, to break wind. 

Poo'-lie, adj. French, POURRI. Rotten. 

Pot'-latch, or Paht'-latsh, n., v. Nootka, PAHCHILT (Jewitt) ; 
PACHAETL, or PACHATL (Cook). A gift; to give. Cultus pot- 
latch, a present or free gift. 

Pow'-itsh, n. Chinook, PAUITSH. A crab-apple. 

Puk'-puk, n. Probably an invented word. A bloio with the fist ; 
a fist- fight. Mamook pukpuk, to box; to fight with the fists; puk- 
puk solleks, to fight in anger. 

Puss'-puss, n. English. A cat. On Puget Sound, pronounced 
2yh-pish. Hyas pusspuss, a cougar. 

S. 

Sagh-a-lie, or Sah'-ha-lie, udj. Chinook, SAKHALI; Clatsop, 
UKHSHAKHAU. Up; above; high. Saghalie tyee (literally, the 
chief above), God. A term invented by the missionaries for want 
of a native one. 



22 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Sail, or Sill, English, SAIL. A sail; any cotton or linen goods. 

Maraook sail, to make sail ; mamook keekwillie sail, to take in sail ; 

tzum sail, printed cloth or calico. 
Sa-kol'-eks, or Se-kol'-uks, . Chinook, TSAKALUKS, leggings. 

Trowsers ; ^anta/oons. Keekwillie sakoleks, drawers. 
Sal-lal', n. Chinook, KLKWUSHALA. (SHELWELL of Lewis and 

Clarke.) The sallal berry ; fruit of gualtheria shallon. 
Salmon, n. English, idem. The salmon; fish generally. Tyee 

salmon, i.e., chief salmon, the spring salmon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.) ; 

masahchie salmon, a winter species (salmo cam's, Suckley) ; tzum 

salmon, salmon trout. 
Salt, ., adj. English, idem. Salt, or a salt taste. Salt chuck, the 

sea. 
San-de-lie, n., adj. French, CENDRE. Ash-colored. (Anderson.) 

A roan horse; roan-colored. 
Sap'-O-lill, n. Chinook, TSAPELIL. Wheat, flour, or meal. Piah 

sapolill, baked bread; lolo sapolill, whole wheat. The word has 

been erroneously supposed to come from the French la farine. It 

is, however, a true Indian word, and seems common to various 

Columbia river tribes. Pandosy gives SAPLIL as Yakama for bread ; 

Lewis and Clarke write it CHAPELELL. 
Se-ah-host, or Se-agh'-OSt, n. Chinook, SIAKHOST, the face. The 

face; the eyes. Halo seahhost, blind; icht seahhost, one-eyed; 

lakit seahhost (four eyes), or dolla seahhost, spectacles. 
Se-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n. French, CHAPEAU. A hat or cap. 

Seahpult olillie, the raspberry. 
Shame, or Shem, n. English, idem. Shame. Halo shorn mika ? 

arrft you ashamed of yourself ? 
Shan-tie, v. French, CHANTER. To sing. 

She-lok'-um, n. Chinook, TSHAILAKUMIT. (Anderson.) A look 
ing-glass; glass. 
Ship, n. English, idem. A ship or vessel. Stick ship, a sailing 

vessel ; piah ship, a steamer; ship-man, a sailor. 
Shoes, n. English, idem. Shoes; skin shoes; moccasin*. Stick 

shoes, boots or shoes made of leather. 

Shot, n. English, idem. Shot ; lead. Shot olillie, huckleberries. 
Shu'-gah, or Shu'-kwa, . English. Sugar. 
Shugh, n. Chinook, SHUKHSHUKH. A rattle. An imitation doubt 
less of the sound. (Anderson.) Shugh-opoots, a rattlesnake. 
Shut, )>. English, SHIRT. A shirt. 
Shwah-kuk, n. Chihalis, SHWAKKUK. A frog. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 23 

Si-ah, adj. Nootka, SAIA. Far ; far off. Comparative distance is 
expressed by intonation or repetition ; as, siah-siah, very far wake 
siah, near, not far. Jewitt gives SIEVAH as the sky in Nootka, 
which was perhaps the true meaning, or, more probably, they 
called the sky " the afar." 

Si-am, n. Chinook, ISHAIEM. The grizzly bear. 

Sick, adj. English, idem. Sick. Cole sick, the ague ; sick tum- 
tum, grieved; sorry ; jealous ; unhappy. 

Sikhs, or Shikhs, 11. Chinook, SKASIKS; Sahaptin, SHIKSTUA. 
(Pandosy.) A friend. Used only towards men. 

Sin'-a-moxt, adj. Chinook, SINIMAKST. Seven. 

Si'-pah, adj. Wasco. (Shaw.) Straight, like a ramrod. Of only 
local use. 

Sis'-ki-you, n. Cree. (Anderson.) A bob-tailed horse. 

This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range 
of mountains separating Oregon and California, and also on a 
county in the latter State. The origin of this designation, as re 
lated to me by Mr. Anderson, was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. 
McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the year 
1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack train, was over 
taken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his animals, in 
cluding a noted bob-tailed race-horse. His Canadian followers, in 
compliment to their chief, or " bourgeois," named the place the 
Pass of the Siskiyou, an appellation subsequently adopted as the 
veritable Indian name of the locality, and which thence extended 
to the whole range, and the adjoining district. 

Sit'-kum, n., adj. Chinook, SITKUM (Anderson) ; Clatsop, ASITKO. 
A half; apart. Sitkum dolla, half a dollar; sitkum sun, noon; 
tenas sitkum, a quarter, or a small part. 

Sit'-lay, or Sit'-li-ay, n. French, LES ETRIERS. (Anderson.) 
Stirrups. 

Sit'-shum, v. Chihalis, idem. To swim. 

Si'-wash, n., adj. French, SAUVAGE. An Indian; Indian. 

Skin, n. English, idem. Skin. Skin shoes, moccasins ; stick skin, 
the bark of a tree. 

Skoo'-kum, or Skoo-koom , n., adj. Chihalis, SKUKCM. A 
r/host; an evil sjririt or demon; strong. Skookum tumtum, brave ; 
skookum chuck, a rapid. 

Skwak'-wal, n. Chinook, SKAKULH (Anderson); Clatsop, SKA- 
KOLI. A lamprey eel. Of local use only. 

Skwis'-kwis, n. Chinook, Cathlamet dialect. A squirrel. 



24: DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Sla-hal , n. Chinook, ETLALTLAL. A game played with ten small 
disks, one of which is marked. 

Smet'-ocks, n. Chihalis, SMETTAKS. The large clam (Lutraria). 
Used only at the mouth of the Columbia river. 

Smoke, ft. English, idem. Smoke; clouds ; fog ; steam, 

Snass, n. Quaere u. d. Rain. Cole snass, snow. The word is 
neither Chinook nor Chihalis, and is perhaps manufactured. 

Snow, n. English, idem. Snoio. 

Soap, n. English, idem. Soap. 

So-le'-xnie, n. Chinook, SULAMICH (Anderson); Clatsop, SHOLBK. 
The cranberry. 

Sol'-leks, or Sah'-leks, n., adj. Quaere u. d. Anger ; angry. 
Mamook solleks, to fight; tikegh solleks, to be hostile; kumtuks 
solleks, to be passionate. 

So'-pe-na, v. Chinook, T'SOPENA. To jump; to leap. 

Spo'-oh, or Spo'-eh, adj. Chinook, idem. Faded; any light 
color, as pale blue, drab, &c. Chahko spoeh, to fade. 

Spoon, n. English, idem. A spoon. 

Spose, cow/. English, SUPPOSE. If; supposing; provided that; in 
order that. Spose mika nanitsh nika canim, if you see my canoe ; 
spose nika klatawa kopa Chinook, if or when I go to Chinook; 
kahkwa spose, as if. See KLOSHE SPOSE. 

Stick, w., adj. English, idem. A stick; a tree; wood; wooden. 
Stick skin, bark; ship stick, a mast; mitwhit stick, a standing 
tree; icht stick, a yard measure; stick shoes, leather shoes or boots, 
as distinguished from skin shoes or moccasins; kull stick, oak (hard 
wood) ; isick stick, the ash (paddle wood). 

Stock'-en, n. English. Stockings or socks. 

Stoh, adj. Chinook, idem. Loose. Mamook stoh, to untie; un 
loose ; undo. Metaphorically, to absolve. 

Stone, n. English, idem. A rock or stone; bone ; horn; the testi 
cles. Stone kiuatan, a stallion ; mahsh stone, to castrate. 

Stote'-kin, adj. Chinook, STOKTKIN. Eight. 

Stutch'-un, n. English, STURGEON. The sturgeon. 

Suk-wal'-al, n. Chinook (Hale) ; Clatsop, SHUKWALALA, a gun or 
musket. No longer used in Jargon. 

Sun, . English, idem. The sun; a day. Tenas sun, early ; sit- 
kum sun, noon; klip sun, sunset. 

Sun'-day, n. English, idem. Sunday. Icht Sunday, a week; hyas 
sunday, a holiday. A flag hoisted on a particular occasion is 
sometimes also called Sunday. The other days of the week are 



PART I. CHINOOK KNGLISH. 25 

usually counted from this ; as, icht, mokst, klone sun kopet San- 
day, one, two, or three days after Sunday. Saturday used to bo 
called at the Hudson's Bay Company's posts " muckamuck sun," 
food day, as the one on which the rations were issued. 

T. 

Tagh'-um, To'-hum, or Tugh'-um, adj. Chinook, TAKHUM; 

Cowlitz, TUKHCM ; Kwantleu, TUKHUM' ; Selish, TAKKAN. Six. 
Tahl-kie, or Tahnl-kie, adv. Chinook, TANLKI. Yesterday. 

Icht tahlkie, day before yesterday. 
Tah-nim, v. Chihalis, idem. To measure. Of only local use, and 

not strictly Jargon. 
TahV-le-lum, or Tot'-le-lum, adj. Chinook, TATLELUM. Ten. 

The combinations from this are simple. Moxt, klone, <fec., tahtle- 

lum, signifying twenty, thirty, &c. ; tahtlelum pe icht, <fec., eleven, 

twelve, &c. 
Tal-a-pus, n. Chinook, ITALIPAS; Yakama, TELIPA. (Pandosy.) 

The coyote or prairie wolf. A sort of deity or supernatural being, 

prominent in Indian mythology. A sneak. 
Ta-mah-no-US, n. Chinook, ITAMANAWAS. A sort of guardian or 

familiar spirit; magic; luck; fortune; any thing supernatural. 

One's particular forte is said to be his tamahnous. Mamook ta- 

mahnous, to conjure; "make medecine;" masahchie tamahnous, 

witchcraft or necromancy. Mr. Anderson restricts the true meaning 

of the word to conjuring. 

Ta-mo'-litsh, or T.a-mow'-litsh, n. Chinook, TAMULITSH (An 
derson) ; Yakama, TAMOLITSII (Pandosy). A tub; barrel; bucket. 

Icht tamolitsh, a bushel measure. 
Tanse, v., n. English, DANCE. To dance. 
T'chuk'-in, or Tsugh'-ken. See CHUCKIN. 
Tea, n. English, idem. Tea. 
Te-ah-wit, n. Chinook, TIAWI; Clatsop, KEAAWIT. The leg; 

the- foot. Klatawa teahwit, to go on foot; to ?paWr;-klook teahwit, 

lame. 
Teh-teh, v. Clatsop, TETEHAHA. To trot, as a horse. Of local 

use only. 
Ten'-as, or Tan'-as, n., adj. Nootka, TAXAS; Tokwaht, TENES. 

Small ; few ; little; a child ; the young of any animal. Mokst 

nika tenas, / have two children; tenas hyiu, afew; tenas sun, early. 

Jewitt gives TANASSIS for a child jn Nootka. 





26 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Te-peh, n. Chinook, TEPEEH. Quills; the wings of a bird. 

Tik-egh, or Tu-kegh, v. Chinook, TIKEKH. To want; wish; 
love; like. Hyas tikegh, to long for ; ikta mika tikegh? what do 
you want? 

Tik'-tik, n. By onoma. A watch. 

Til'-i-kum, n. Chinook, TILIKHUM. People. Applied generally, 
it means those who are not chiefs. Cultus tilikum, common or in 
significant persons; huloima tilikum, strangers; nika tilikurn, my 
relations. It is also used to signify a tribe or band. 

Til'-i-kum-ma-ma, n. (Hale.) Chinook, TLKAMAMA. A father. 
The word is not in use in Jargon. 

Till, or Tull, adj., n. English, TIRE. Tired; heavy; weight ; a 
weight. Hyas till nika, / am very tired; kansih till okook, how 
much does that weigh; mamook till, to weigh. 

Tin'-tin, . By onoma. A bell ; a musical instrument. Mamook 
tintin, to ring a bell. Among the Indians round the Hudson Bay 
Company's posts, the hours were thus known ; as, mokst tintin 
kopet sitkum sun, two hours, i. e., two bells after noon. 

T'kope, adj. Chinook, idem. White; light-colored. 

Tlehl. See KLALE. 

Tl'kope, v. Chinook, idem. To cut; hew; chop. 

Toh, or Tooh. By onoma. Mamook toh, to spit. A manufac 
tured word. 

T6ke-tie, adj. Kalapuya. Pretty. Not in common use. 

To'-lo, v. Kalapuya. To earn; to win at a game ; to gain. Kan 
sih dolla nika tolo spose mamook ? how many dollars will I earn 
if I work ? 

To'-luks, n. Clallam, TOYUK. The mussel. Used on Puget Sound 
only. 

To-mol-la, adv. English, TO-MORROW. Ikt tomolla, or copct to- 
molla, the day after. 

Tot, n. Chihalis, TOT, or TAT. An uncle. 

To'-to, v. By onoma. Chinook, TOKH-TOKH. To shake; sift any 
thing; winnow. 

To-toosh', or Ta-toosh', n. Chippeway, TOTOSH. (Schoolcraft.) 
The breasts of a female ; milk. Totoosh lakles, butter. 

To-wagh', adj. Chinook, TOWAKH. Bright; shining; light. 

Tsee, adj. Chinook, idem. Sweet. 

Tsee'-pie, v. Kalapuya. To miss a mark; to mistake one's road ; 
to make a blunder in speaking; to err or blunder. Tseepie wayhut. 
to take the wrong road. 





PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 27 

Tshi'-ke, adv. (Hale.) Quaere u. d. Directly; soon. Not Jargon. 

Tshis, adj. Chinook, idem. Cold. Not in common use. 

Tsi-at-ko, n. Chihalis, Nisqually, &c., idem ; Clatsop, ECHIATKU 
A nocturnal demon, much feared by the Indians. The Skagits give 
this name to\ the " Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on Frazer River, 
of whom they stand in like awe. 

Tsik -tsik, or Tchik -tchik, n. By onoma. A wagon; a cart; 
a wheel. Tsiktsik wayhut, a wagon-road. . 

Tsil'-tsil, or Chil'-chil, . Chinook, ECHILCHIL. (Anderson.) 
Buttons ; the stars. 

Tsish, v. By onoma., in imitation of the sound of a grindstone. 
(Shaw.) Mamook tsish, to sharpen. Of local use. 

Tsole-pat, n. Klikatat. A shot-pouch. Of local use only. 

Tso'-lo, n. Kalapuya. (Shaw.) To wander in the dark; to lose 
one's way. Used in the Willamette valley. 

Tsugh, n., v. Chinook, idem. A crack or split. Mamook tsugh, 
to split; chahko tsugh, to become split or cracked, as by the heat 
of the sun ; mamook tsugh illahie, is by some used instead of klugh, 
for to plough. 

Tsuk. See CHUCK. 

Tuk-a-mo'-nuk, or Tak-a-mo'-nak, adj. Chinook, ITAEAMONAK. 
A hundred. It is, like ten, combined with the digits ; as, icht, moxt, 
klone takamonak, one hundred, two hundred, three hundred, &c. 
Hyas takamonak, or tahtlelum takamonak, a thousand. 

Tuk'-wil-la, or To'-kwil-la, . Kalapuya. The hazel-nut ; nuts 
generally. 

Tum'-tum, n. By onoma., from the pulsations of the heart. (An 
derson.) The heart; the will; opinion. Mahsh tumtum, to give 
orders ; mamook tumtum, to make up one's mind ; mamook closhe 
tumtum, to make friends or peace; sick tumtum, grief; jealousy; 
moxt tumtum nika, / am undecided, i. e., / have two wills. Q. Kah 
nesika klatawa ? where shall we go ? A. Mika tumtum, wherever 
you please; as you will. Ikta mika tumtum? what do you think? 
Halo tumtum, without a will of one's own, as a child. The heart 
seems to be generally regarded as the seat of the mind or will. 

Tum-wa'-ta, n. TUM, by onoma. ; English, WATER. A waterfall, 
cascade, or cataract. Lewis and Clarke give TIMM as used by the 
Indians above the Dalles of the Columbia in directing them to the 
falls. 

Tup'-shin, or Tip'-sin, v. Chihalis, TUPSHIN. A needle. Mamook 
tipsin, to sew ; to mend ; to patch. 



<. 

28 DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON. 

Tup-SO, or Tip '-SO, ft. Chinook, TEPSO, a leaf. Grass; leaves , 

fringe; feathers; fur. Often but incorrectly employed for YAKSO, 

hair; tipso illahie, prairie; dely tipso, hay. 
Ty'-ee, ?., adj. Nootka, TAIYI; TYEE (Jewitt). A chief. Any 

thing of superior order. Saghalie tyee, the Deity ; tyee salmon, 

the spring salmon. TOYON is given by some of the northwestern 

voyagers as the Eskimo appellation for chief. 
Tzum, n., adj. Chinook, idem. Mixed colors; spots or stripes; a 

mark or figure; writing ; paint ; painted. Tzum sill, printed calico; 

tzum pehpa, writing ; mamook tzum, to write; tzum illahie, blazed 

or surveyed land. 

W. 

Wagh, v. Chinook, WAKH. To pour; to spill; to vomit. Mamook 
wagh chuck, pour out some water. 

Wake, adv. Nootka, WIK (Jewitt) ; Tokwaht, WEK. No; not.^ 

Wa'-ki, adv. (Hale.) Chinook, WAKI. To-morrow. Not Jargon. 

Wap'-pa-too, n. Quaere u. d. The root of the Sagitaria sagitti- 
folia, which forms an article of food; the potato. The word is 
neither Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere in common use. 

Wash,, v. English, idem. Mamook wash, to wash. 

Waum, adj. English, WARM. Hyas waum, hot; wauin illahie, 
summer; mamook waum, to heat; waum-sick-cole-sick, fever and 
ague. 

Wau'-wau,' v., n. Nootka; Nittinat, WAWE. To talk; speak; 
call; ask; tell; answer; talk or conversation. Cultus wauwau, 
idle talk; stuff; nonsense; hyas wauwau, to shout. 

Way'-hut, Hweh'-kut, or Wee '-hut, . Chinook, WEHUT, a 
road ; Yakama, WIET, far. A road or trail. Tsik-tsik wayhut, a 
wagon-road. About Vancouver, ou the Columbia, it is pronounced 
HWEHKUT ; on Puget Sound, WEEHUT. 

Weght, covj. Chinook, idem. Again; also; more. Pe nika weght, 
and I too; pahtlatsh weght, give me some more ; tenas weght, a 
little more yet. 

Whim, v. Wasco. (Shaw.) To fell. Whim stick, a fallen tree; 
mamook whim okook stick, fell that tree. Also, to throw, in wrest 
ling. Of local use only. 

Win'-a-pie, adv. Nootka; Nittinat, WILAI-I. Btj-and-byc; pres 
ently ; wait. Of local use; the Chinook ALKI being more com 
mon. 



PART I. CHINOOK ENGLISH. 29 

Wind, or Win, -n. English, idem. Wind. The winds are often 
known by the country from which they blow ; as, for instance, on 
the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla-walla wind ; at the mouth of 
the river, a southerly is a Tilamooks wind, &c. Breath. Ex. Halo 
wind, out of breath ; dead. 

Y. 

Yah'-hlll, n. Chinook, YAKHUL ; EBEKHOL. A name. Not in gen 
eral use. 

Yah-ka, or Yok'-ka, pron. Chinook, YAKA. He; his; him; 
she; it, &c. 

Yah'-kis-ilt'h, adj. Chinook, YAKISILT'H. Sharp. Mr. Anderson 
gives as the original, " cutting." 

Yah'-wa, adv. Chinook, YAWAKH. There; thither ; thence; be 
yond. 

Yah'-whul. See AYAHWHUL. 

Yak'-SO, n. Chinook, idem. The hair of the head ; hair generally. 

Ya-kwah'-tin, or Kwah'-tin, n. Chinook and Clatsop, YAKWA- 
TIN. The belly ; the entrails. 

Yaub. See LEJAUB. 

Yel'-a-kwat. See KALAKWAHTIE. 

Yi'-em, v., n. Chihalis, YAIEM. To relate ; to tell a story - to con 
fess to a priest ; a story or tale. 

Youtl, adj. Quaere Chihalis, EYUTLH ; Nisqually, JUIL, glad. 
Pleased; proud; (of a horse), spirited. Hyas youtl yakka turn- 
turn, his heart is very glad; he is much puffed up. 

Youtl-kut, adj., n. Chinook, YtriLKUT. Long (in dimension); 
length. 

Yout-skut, or Yutes'-kut, adj. Chinook, YUTSKUTA. Short (in 
dimension). 

Y-salt'h, or Ye-salt'h. % Sec E-SALT'H. 

Yuk'-wa, adv. Chinook, YAKWA. Here; hither ; this side of; 
this way. Yukwa kopa okook house, this side of that house. 



PART II. 

ENGLISH-CHINOOK. 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Above, sdgh-a-lle. 
Absolve, mam'-ook stoh. 
Acorns, kdh-na-way. 
AcrOSS, in'-a-ti. 

Afraid, kwass. 

After, Afterwards, kim'-tn. 

Again, weght. 

All, kon'-a-way. 

Alms, e'-la-han, or e-lanri. 

Also, weght. 

Although, kegh-tchle. 

Always, kwdh-ne-sum. 

American, Boston. 

Amusement, hee'-hee. 

And, pee. 

Anger, Angry, sol'-leks. 

Apple, le pome. 

Apron, keh-sn, or ki'-sn. 

Arbutus uva ursi, lahb. 
Arrive at, ko. 
Arrow, ka-li'-tan. 
As if, kdh-kwa spose. 
At, ko'-2)a. 
Aunt, kioaVh. 
Awl, shoes keep'-wot. 
Axe, la-hash'. 

B. 

Bad, me-sdh-chie ; pe-shuk' . 

Bag, le sak. 

Ball, le bal. 

Bargain, mdh-kook ; huy-huy. 

Bark, stick-skin. 



Barrel, ta-mo'-litsh. 
Basket, o'-pe-kwan. 
Beads, ka-mo'-suk. 
Bear (black), chet'-woot; itsf- 

looot (grizzly), si-am'. 
Beat, to, kok'-shut. 
Beaver, ec'-na. 
Because, keh-wa. 
Become, to, chdh-ko. 
Bed, beef. 

Before, e'-lip, or el'-ip. 
Behind, kim'-ta. 
BeU, tin' -tin. 
Belly, ya-kwdh-tin. 
Below, kee'-kwil-lie. 
Belt, hi san-jel'. 

Berries, o' -Ill-lie; o'-lal-lie. 
Best, e'-lip closhe. 
Bird, kal-lak '-a-la. 
Biscuit, le bls'-kwee. 
Bitter, klihl. 
Black, Male. 

Blackberries, klik'-a-muks. 
Blanket, pa-see'-sie. 
Blind, ha'-lo se-dh-host. 
Blood, pil-pil. 

Blow Out, mam'-ook poh. 
Blue (light), spo'-oh. 

(dark), Male. 

Blunder, to, tsee'-pie. 

Board, In plash. 

Boat, boat. 

Bob-tailed; a bob-tailed 

horse, sif'- 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Boil, tO, lip'-lip. 

Bone, stone. 

Borrow, to, a-yah-iohul. 

Bosom (female), to-toosh. 

Both, kun'-a-moxt. 

Bottle, la-boo-ti'. 

Bow, o'-pitl-kegh. 

Bowl, oos'-kan. 

Box, la ca-sett'. 

Bracelet, klik'-wal-lie. 

Brave, skoo'-kum tum'-tum. 

Bread, le pan. 

Break, to, kok'-shut. 

Breasts, to-toosh'. 

Breech clout, o'-poots sill. 

Bridle, la bleed. 

Bright, to-w&yh. 

Broad, kluk-ulh'. 

Broom, bloom. 

Brother, kdhp-ho, if elder than 

the speaker; ow, if younger. 

Male cousins the same. 
Brother-in-law, ek'-keh. 
Bucket, ta-mo'-litsh. 
Buffalo, moos'-moos. 
Bullet, le bal; ka-li'-tan. 

Bundle, kow. 

But, pe. 

Butter, to-loosh' la-kles'. 

Buttons, tsil'-tsil. 

Buy, to, mah-kook. 

By-and-by, win'-a-pie. 

c. 

Candle, la shan-del'. 
Carrot, la ca-lat'. 
Carry, to, lo' lo. 

Cart, tsik'-tsik chik'-chik. 

Cascade, turn' wa-ter. 
Castrate, to, mahsh stone. 



Cat, puss' -puss. 

Cataract^ turn' wa-ter. 

Cattle, moos'-moos. 

Certainly, na-uit'-ka. 

Chain, la shen; chik'a-min lope 

Chair, la shase. 

Cheat, to, la-ldh. 

Chicken, la pool. 

Chief, ty-ee'. 

Child, ten' -as. 

Clams, o'-nay luk'-ut-chee la- 

kwit'-chee. 

Clams, the large kind, smet-ocks. 
Clear up, to, chah-ko klah. 
Cloth (cotton), sail. 
Clouds, smoke. 
Coat, ca-po'. 

CoJGFee, kau'-py. 

Cold, cole tshis. 

Comb, comb. 

Comb, to, mam'-ook comb. 
Come, to, chah-ko. 
Confess, to, yi'-em. 
Conjuring, ta-m&h-no-us. 
Cook, to, mam'-ook pi'-ah. 
Copper, pil chik'-a-min. 
Cord, ten' -as lope. 
Corn, e-salfh', or ye-salfh'. 
Corral, kul-lagh. 
Cotton goods, sail. 

Cough, hoh'-hoh. 
Count, to, mam'-ook kwun'-nun. 
Cousin, see brother and sister. 
Coyote, tal'-a-pus. 
Crab apple, pow'-itsh. 
Cranberry, so'-le-mie. 
Crazy, pel' -ton. 
Cream-colored, le clem. 
Crooked, ki'-wa. 

CrOSS, la clo-a'. 
Crow, kah-kah. 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



35 



Cry, to, cly. 
Cup, oos'-kan. 
Curly, hunl'-kih. 
Cut, to, tVko'-pe. 

D. 

Dance, to, tanse. 

Dark, darkness, po'-lak-lie. 

Day, sun. 

Dead, mem'-a-loost. 

Deaf, ik-poo'-ie kwil-lan. 

Dear, hy'-as mdh-kook. 

Deep, klip. 

Deer, mow'-itsh. 

Demon, skoo'-kum. 

Devil, di-aub 1 ; yaub; le-jaub'. 

Different, hul-o'-i-ma. 

Difficult, kull. 

Dig, to, mam'-ook il'-la-hie. 

Dime, Ut, or mil. 

Do, to, mam'-ook. 

Doctor, doc'-tin. 

Dog, kam'-ooks. 

Dollar, dol'-la, or tdh-la. 

Door, la po'te. 

Down stream, mi'-mic. 

Drink, to, muck'-a-muck. 

Drive, to, kish'-kish. 

Drunk, pdht-lum. 

Dry, de-ly'. 

Duck (Mallard), kweh-kweh ; 

hdht-haht. 
Dust, po'-lal-lie. 

E. 

Eagle, chak'-chak. 
Ear, kwo-lann'. 
Early, ten'-as sun. 
Earn, to, to'-lo 



Earth, il'-la-hie. 
Eat, to, muck'-a-muck. 
Egg, le sap' le zep'. 
Eight, sto'-te-kin. 
Elk, moo'-lock. 
Enclosure, kul-ldgh. 
English, 
Englishman, 
Enough, hi-yu' ; ko-pet'. 
Entrails, ki-ydgh. 
Evening, ten'-as po'-lak-lie. 
Every, kon'-a-way. 
Exchange, huy-huy. 
Eyes, se-ah-host. 

F. 

Face, se-dh-host. 

Faded, spo'-oh. 

Falsehood, klim-in'-a-whit. 

Far, si-dh. 

Fast (quick), hy-ak'. 

Fast (tight), kwutl. 

Fasten, to, koio. 

Fat, glease. 

Father, pa'-pa. 

Fathom, it'-lan. 

Fear, kwass. 

Fell, to (as a tree), mam'-ook 

whim. 

Fence, kul-ldgh. 
Fetch, to, mam'-ook chdh-ko. 
Fever, waum sick. 

Few, ten'-as. 

Fight, to, mam'-ook sol'-leks. 

Fight, with fists, mam'-ook 

puk'-puk. 

Figured (as calico), tzum. 
File, la leem. 
Fill, to, mam'-ook pahll. 
Find, to, klap. 



36 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Fingers, le doo. 

Fire, pi' -ah; o-la-pits'-ki. 

First, e'-lip, or el'-ip. 

Fish, pish. 

Fish hook, ik'-kik. 

Five, kwin'-num. 

Flea, so'-pen e'-na-poo ; cho'-tub. 

Flesh, itl'-wil-lie. 

Flint, kil-it'-sut. 

Flour, sap'-o-lill. 

Fly, to, ka-wak'. 

Fog, smoke. 

Food, muck'-a-muck. 

Fool, pel'-ton. 

Foolish, pel'-ton. 

Foot, le-pee'. 

Forever, kwdh-ne-sum. 

Forget, to, mdh-lie. 

Fork, la poo-she t'. 

Formerly, dhn-kul-tc, or dhn- 

kot-tie. 

Four, lak'-it, or lok'-it. 
Fowl, la pool. 
French, Frenchman, pa-si' - 

ooks. 

Friend, sikhs, or shikhs. 
Frog, shwdh-kuk. 
Fry, to, mam'-ook la po-el'. 
Frying-pan, la po-el'. 
Full, pahtl. 
Fundament, o'-poots. 

G. 

Gallop, to, kwa-lal' -kiva-lal' . 

Gather, to, ho'-ku-melh. 

Get, to, if,' -k urn. 

Get out, mahsh. 

Get up, get-up', or ket-op'. 

Ghost, skoo'-kum. 

Gift, cul'-tus pot' -latch. 



Give, to, pot' -latch. 

Glad, kivann. 

Go, to, klat'-a-wa. 

God, sdgh-a-lie ty-ee'. 

Gold, pil chik'-a-min. 

Good, A7ose, or kloshe. 

Good-bye, kla-how'-ya. 

Goods, ik'-tah. 

Goose, tvhuy'-ivhuy ; kal-ak-a- 

Idh-ma. 

Grandfather, chope. 
Grandmother, chitsh. 
Grease, la-kles' ; glease. 
Green, pe-chugh'. 
Grey ; a grey horse, le gley. 
Grizzly bear, si-am'. 
Ground, il' -la-hie. 
Gun; musket, suk'-wa-lal. 

H. 

Hair, yak'-so. 

Half, sit'-kum. 

Hammer, le mdh-to. 

Hand, le mdh. 

Hand (game of), it'-lo-kum. 

Handkerchief, hak'-at-shum. 

Hard, kull. 

Hare, kwit' -shad-ie. 

Harrow, to, mam'-ook comb il'- 

la-hie. 

Hat, se-dh-po; se-dh-pult. 
Haul, haul. 

Hazel-nuts, tuk'-wil-la. 
He, his, ydh-ka. 
Head, la let. 
Heart, turn' -turn. 
Heaven, sdyh-il-lie il' -la-hie. 
Heavy, till. 

Help, to, inum'-ook e-lanri. 
Here, yuk'-wa. 



BANCROFT LIBRARY 

PAKT II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



37 



Hermaphrodite, bur'-dask. 
Hide, to, ip'-soot. 

High, adyh-a-lie. 

Hit, to, kwaVh. 

Hoe, la pe-osh' . 

Hog, co'-sho. 

Hole, kla-wluup. 

Holiday, Sunday. 

Horn, atone. 

Horse, kiu'-a-tan. 

House, house. 

HOW, kdh-ta. 

How are you, kla-how'-ya. 

How many, kun'-sih kun' 

juk. 

Hundred, tuk-a-mo'-nuk. 
Hungry, o'-lo. 
Hurry, howh; hy-ak'. 

I. 

I, ni-ka. 

If, spose. 

In, ko'-pa. 

Indian, si'-ivash. 

In shore, mdht-wil-lic. 

Iron, chik'-a-min. 
It, yah-ka. 

J. 

Jealous, sick tum'-tum. 
Jump, to, so'-pe-na. 

K. 

Kam-ass root, la'-ka-mass. 
Kettle, ket-liny. 
Kick, to, chuk'-kin. 
Kiss, to kiss, be'-be. 
Knife, o'-pit-sah. 
Knock, to, ko'-ko. 



Knotty, hiuil'-kih. 
Know, to, kum'-tuks. 

L. 

Lame, klook te-ah-wit. 

Lamprey eel, skwak'-wal, 

Language, la lang. 

Large, hy-as'. 

Lately, chee. 

Laughter, hee'-hee. 

Lazy, lazy. 

Leap, to, so'-pe-na. 

Leaf, tup'-so, or tip'-so. 

Lean, to, %/t. 

Leave, to, mahsh. 

Leave off, to, ko-pet'. 

Leg, te-dh-ivit. 

Leggings, mi-lass'. 

Lend, to, a-ydh-whul. 

Lick, to, klak'-wun. 

Lie, to, klim-in'-a-whit. 

Like, kdh-kwa. 

Like, to, tik-egh. 

Little, tcn'-as. 

Long, youtl'-kut. 

Long ago, dhn-kut-te, or dhn- 

kot-tie. 
Look, to, nan'-itsh. 

Look here! nah. 

Look out ! klose nan'-itsh. 

Looking-glass, shc-lok'-um. 

Loose, sloh. 

Lose the way, to, tso'-lo; 

tsee-pie' way-hut. 
Louse, e'-na-poo, or in'-a-poo. 
Love, to, tik-egh. 

M. 

Magic, ta-mdh-no-us. 



38 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Make, to, mam'-ook. 
Man, man. 
Many, hy-iu'. 
Marry, to, mal-i-eh. 
Mass (Ceremony of), la messe. 
Mast, ship stick. 
Mat, klis'-kwiss. 
Mattock, la pe-osh'. 
Measure, to, tah'-nim. 
Meat, itl '-wil-lie. 
Medicine, la mes'-tin. 
Mend, to, mam'-ook tip -shin. 

Menstruate, to, mahsh pil'- 

pil. 
Metal, metallic, chik'-a-min. 

Middle, the, kat'-suk, or kot'- 

suk. 

Midnight, sit'-kum po'-lak-lie. 
Milk, to-toosh'. 
Mill, moo' -la. 
Mind, the, turn' -turn. 
Miss, to, tsee'-pie. 
Mistake, to, tsee'-pie. 
Moccasins, skin-shoes. 
Molasses, mel-ass'. 
Money, chik'-a-min. 
Month, moon. 
Moon, moon. 
More, weght. 
Mosquito, mel'-a-kwa. 
Mother, mama; na'-ah. 
Mountain, la mon'-ti. 
Mouse, hodl'-hool. 
Mouth, la boos. 
Much, hy-iu'. 
Mule, le mel. 
Musical Instrument, tin'- 

tin. 

Musket, musket. 
Mussels, to'-luks. 
My, mine, ni'-ka. 



N. 

Nails, le cloo. 

Name, nem yah-hul. 

Near, wake si-dh. 

Neck, le con. 

Needle, keep' -wot. 

New, elite. 

Night, po'-lak-lie. 

Nine, kwaist, or kwcest. 

No, not, wake. 

Noise, la tlah. 

None, ha'-lo. 

Nonsense, cul'-tus wau'-wau. 

Noon, sit-kum sun. 
Nose, nose. 

Notwithstanding, kegh-tchie 
NOW, al'-ta. 

Numerals 

1, ikt. 

2, mokst. 

3, klone. 

4, lakit. 

5, kwinnum. 

6, taghum. 

7, sinnamokst. 

8, stotekin. 

9, kwaist. 

10, tahtlelum. 

11, tahtlelum pe ikt 
20, mokst tahtlelum. 

100, ikt takamonuk. 
Nuts, tuk'-wil-la. 



0. 



Oak, kull stick. 

Oar, la lahm la lum. 

Oats, la wen. 

Off, klak. 

Off Shore, maht-lin-nie 



PAET H. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



39 



Oil, glea.se. 

Old, o'-le-man. 

Old man, o'-le-man. 

Old woman, lam'-mi-eh. 

One, ikt. 

One-eyed, ikt se-dh-host. 

Open, hah-lakl. 
Opposite to, in'-a-ti. 
Or, pe. 

Order, to, mahsh turn' -turn. 
Other, hul-(/-i-ma. 
Otter (land), ne-mam'-ooJes. 
Our, ne-si'-Jca. 
Out doors, klagh-a-nie. 
Ox, moos'-moos. 
Oyster, chet'-lo, or jet'-lo; 
kl6gh-klogh. 

P. 

Paddle, a, is'-ick. 

Paddle, to, mam'-ook is'-ick. 

Paint, pent. 

Paint, to, mam'-ook pent. 

Paper, peh-pah. 

Peas, le pioau. 

People, til'-i-kum. 

Perhaps, klo-nas'. 

Petticoat, kal-a-kwah'-tie. 

Piebald, le kye. 

Pin, kwek'-wi-ens. 

Pipe, la peep. 

Pitch, la gome. 

Plate, la si-et 1 . 

Pleased, youtl. 

Plough, le shal-loo'. 

Plough, to, klugh il' -la-hie. 

Pole, la pehsh. 

Poor, kla-how'-yum ha'-lo 

ik'-ta. 
Pork, co'-sho. 



Posteriors, o'-poots. 

Potato, wap'-pa-too. 
Pour, to, wagh. 
Powder, po'-lal-lie. 
Prairie wolf, tal'-a-pus. 
Presently, al'-kie; win'-a-pie 
Pretty, to'ke-tie. 
Priest, le plet. 
Proud, youtl; kwetVh. 
Provided that, spose. 
Pull, haul. 



Q. 



Quarter, ten'-as sit'-kum. 
Quarter (of a dollar), kwah-ta 
Quick, hy-ak'. 
Quills, te-peh. 

R. 

Rabbit, kwit'-shad-ie. 
Rain, snass. 
Rattle, shugh. 

Rattlesnake, shugho'-poots. 
Razor fish, o'-na. 
Reach, ko. 
Red, pil. 

Relate, to, yi'-em. 
Return, to, kel'-i-pi. 
Ribbon, le lo'-ba. 
Rice, lice. 
Rifle, cal' -li-peen. 
Ring, a, kweo-kioeo. 
Ripe, pi'-ah. 
River, chuck. 

Road, way'-hut. 

Roan colored, sari-de-lie. 

Roast, mam'-ook la pel-lah'. 

Rock, stone. 

Rope, lope. 



40 



PAKT II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Rotten, poo'-lie. 
Round, lo'-lo. 
Rudder, boat o'-poots. 
Rum, him. 

S. 

Sack, le suk. 

Saddle, la sell. 

Saddle housings, le pish'-e- 

mo. 

Sail, sail. 
Sailor, ship'-man. 
Salmon, salmon. 
Salt, salt. 
Sand, po'-lal-lie. 
Sash, la san-jel'. 
Saw, la gwin ; la scie. 
Say, to, wau'-wau. 
Scissors, le see'-zo._ 
Sea, salt-chuck. 
Seal, ol'-hi-yu si'-wash co'-sho. 
See, to, nan'-itsh. 
Sell, to, m&h-kook. 
Seven, sin f ~a-mozt. 
Sew, to, mam'-ook tip'-shin. 
Shake, to, to-to ; hul'-lel. 
Shame, shem. 
Sharp, ydh-kis-ilfh. 
Sharpen, to, mam j -ook tsish. 
She, her, yah-ka. 
Sheep, le moo'-to. 
Shell money (the small size), 

coop-coop; (the large), hy-kwa. 
Shingle, le-bdh-do. 
Shining, to~wagh. 
Ship, ship. 
Shirt, shut. 
Shoes, shoes. 
Shoot, to, mam'-ook poo. 
Short, yutes-kut. 



Shot, shot; ten' -as le bal. 
Shot pouch, ka-li-tan le-sac' 

tsole'-pat. 

Shout, to, hy'-as wau'-wait. 
Shovel, la pell. 
Shut, to, ik-poo'-ie. 
Sick, sick. 
Sift, to, to-to. 
Silk, la sway. 
Silver, t'kope chik'-a-min. 
Similar, kdh-ku>a. 
Since, kim-ta. 
Sing, to, shan'-tie. 
Sister, kahp-ho, if older than the 

speaker ; ats, if younger. 
Sit, to, mit'-lite. 
Six, t6gh-um. 
Skin, skin. 
Skunk, hum o'-poots; piu'-piu- 

skub'-e-you. 
Sky, koo'-sagh. 
Slave, e-li'-te ; mist' -shi-mus. 
Sleep, moo'-sum. 
Slowly, kl&h-wa. 
Small, ten'-as. 
Smell, a, humm. 
Smoke, smoke. 
Snake, o'-luk. 
Snow, snow; cole snass. 
Soap, soap. 
Soft, klim'-min. 
Sorrel colored, a sorrel horse, 

le blau. 

Sorry, sick tum'-tum. 
Sour, kwates. 
Spade, la pell. 
Speak, to, wau'-wau. 
Spill, to, wagh. 
Spirits, lum. 
Split, tsugh. 
Split, to, mam'-ook tsugh. 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Spectacles, dol'-la se-aah-ost, 

or lak-it se-agh-ost. 
Spit, to, mam'-ook toh. 
Split, to become, chdh-ko 

laugh. 

Spoon, spoon, 
Spotted, le kye ; tzum. 
Spurs, le see'-blo. 
Squirrel, tkwuf-kwi$. 
Stab, to, klem'-a-hun. 

Stand, to, mit'-whit. 

Stars, tsil'-tsil. 

Stay, to, mit'-lite. 

Steal, to, kap-su-al-la. 

Steam, smoke. 

Steamer, pi'-ah ship. 

Stick, a, stick. 

Stink, a, piu-piu / humm. 

Stirrup, sit' -lay. 

Stockings, stock' -en; kush-is'. 

Stone, stone. 

Stop, to, ko-pet'. 

Store, mdh-kook house. 

Story, eh-kah-nam. 

Straight, de-ldte, or de-let' ; 

si'-pah. 

Strawberries, a-mo'-te. 
Strong, skoo'-kum. 
Sturgeon, stutch'-un. 
Sugar, le sook shu'-yah ; shu'- 



Summer, waum il'-la-hie. 
Sun, sun; 6te-lagh. 
Sunday, sunday. 
Sunset, klip sun. 
Suppose, spose. 
Swan, kah-loke. 
Sweep, to, mam'-ook bloom. 
Sweet, tsee. 
Swim, sit'-shum. 



T. 

Table, la tahb. 

Tail, o' -poots. 

Take, to, is'-kum. 

Take care ! klose nan'-itsh. 

Take off, or out, mam'-ook 
klak ; muJtsh. 

Tale, or story, yi'-em; eh-kah- 
nam. 

Talk, tc, wau'-wau. 

Tame, kwass. 

Tea, tea. 

Teach, to, mam'-ook kum'-tuks. 

Tear, to, Hugh. 

Teeth, le tdh. 

Tell, to, wau'-wau. 

Ten, laht-le-lum. 

Testicles, stone. 

Thank you, mah-sie. 

That, o'-koke. 

That way, yah-wa. 

There, yah-wa; ko-pah. 

They, klas'-ka. 

Thick (as molasses), pit'-lilh. 

Thin (as a board), p'chih ; pe- 
what'-tie. 

Thing, ik'-tah. 

This, o'-koke. 

This way, yuk'-wa. 

Thou, thy, thine, mi'-ka. 

Thread, Ha-pite. 

Three, Hone. 

Throw away, mahsh. 

Tide, see chuck. 

Tie, to, kow. 

Tight, kioutl. 

Tinware, ma-l&h. 

Tip, to, laah. 

Tired, till. 

To, towards, ko'-pa. 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 



Tobacco, ki'-nootl; ki'-noos. 
To-morrow, to-mol'-la. 
Tongue, la lang. 
Trail, way'-kut. 
Trap, la pi6ge. 
Tree, stick. 

Tree, fallen, whim stick. 
Trot, to, teh-teh. 

Trowsers, sa-kol'-cks. 

True, de-ldte. 

Truth, de-ldte wau'-wau. 

Tub, ta-mo'-litsh. 

Twine, ten' -as lope; kla-pite. 

Two, twice, mokst. 

u. 

Uncle, tot. 

Under, kee'-kwil-lie. 
Understand, to, kum'-tuks. 
Unhappy, sick tum'-tum. 
Untamed, le-mo'-lo. 
Untie, to, mam'-ook stoh ; 

mahsh kow. 
Up, sdgh-a-lie. 
Upset, to, kel'-i-pi. 
Us, ne-si'-ka. 

V. 

Venereal, the, pi'-ah sick. 
Venison, mow'-itsh. 
Very, hy-as'. 
Vessel, ship. 
Vest, la west. 
Vomit, to, wagh. 

W. 

Wagon, tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik. 
Wander, to, tso'-lo. 



Want, to, tik-tgh. 

Warm, waum. 

Wash, to, mam'-ook wash. 

Watch, a, tik'-tik. 

Water, chuck. 

Waterfall, tum'-water. 

We, ne-si'-ka. 

Weigh, to, mam'-ook till. 

Wet, pahtl chuck. 

Whale, eh'-ko-lie; kwah-nice ; 

kwad'-dis. 
What, ik'-tah. 
Wheat, sap'-o-lill. 
Wheel, tsik'-tsik ; chik'-chik. 
When, kan'-sih; kun-juk. 
Where, kah. 
Whip, le whet. 
White, tkope. 

Who, klak'-sta. 

Whole, lo'-lo. 
Why, kdh-ta. 
Wicked, me-sdh-chie. 
Wide, kluk-ulh'. 
Wild, le mo'-lo. 
Will, the, tum'-tum. 
Willow, ee'-nastick. 
Win, to, to'-lo. 
Wind, wind. 
Winter, cole il'-la-hie. 
Wipe, to, klak'-wun. 
Wire, chik'-a-min lope. 
Wish, to, tik-egh. 
With, ko'-pa. 
Without, ha'-lo. 
Wolf, le-loo'. 
Woman, klootsh'-man, 
Woman (old), lam'-mi-eh. 
Wood, wooden, stick. 
Work, to, mam'-ook. 
Worn out, o-le-man. 
Worthless, cul'-tus. 



PART II. ENGLISH CHINOOK. 43 

Wound, to, klem'-a-kun. Yellow, kaw'-ka-wak. 

Write, to, mam'-ook peh-pah; Yes, dh-ha; e-eh. 

mam'-ook tzum. Yes indeed, na-wit'-ka. 

Writing, tzum. Yesterday, tdhl-kie; tdhl-kie 

sun. 

Y. You, your, yours, me-si'- 

ka. 
Year, ikt cole. Young, ten'-as. 



THE LORD'S PRAYER IN JARGON. 



Nesika papa klaksta mitlite kopa saghalie, kloshe kopa nesika 
Our father who stayeth in the above, good in our 

turntum mika nem; kloshe mika tyee kopa konaway tilikura; 
hearts (be) thy name ; good thou chief among all people ; 

kloshe raika tumtum kopa illahie, kahkwa kopa saghalie. Fotlatch 
good thy will upon earth as in the above. Give 

konaway sun nesika muckamuck. Spose nesika mamook masahchie, 
every day our food. If we do ill, 

wake mika hyas solleks, pe spose klaksta masahchie kopa 
(be) not thou very angry, and if any one evil towards 

nesika, wake nesika solleks kopa klaska. Mahsh siah kopa 
us not we angry towards them. Send away far from 



nesaika konaway masahchie. 
us all evil. 



Kloshe kahkwa. 



*